Vocab for Final
Demographic transition: The pattern of falling death rates, followed by fallen birthrates, that generally accompanies
industrialization and economic development
Relevance: This reduces pressure for agricultural production and gives the flexibility needed to industrialize, which helps
to increase southern economies and reduce the NS gap.
Dualism: Occurs when an economy is split, and one part of the economy is thriving, while the rest is still very
underdeveloped; there is no spillover between the two enclaves in the economy.
Relevance: The successful part of the economy can falsely make it appear that the country is not struggling and that the
NS gap is decreasing.
Terms of Trade: Refer to how much a country is getting paid for their exports in comparison to how much the are paying
for imports. If a country is getting more for their exports than they are paying for their imports, then they have good terms
of trade. Vice versa, if a country if paying more for their imports than they are making off of their exports, they have poor
terms of trade.
Relevance: Many southern countries export primary products, rather than manufactured products, and they then import
manufactured products, which cost more. This leads to poor terms of trade, and increased the NS gap and conflict.
Trade Diversification: Trade diversification refers to how many products a country exports. In the 80s and 90s, many
southern countries only had one or two main exports. Relevance: By having only one or two main exports, many southern countries ride the roller coaster of price and market
fluctuations, which makes it difficult for them to stabilize their economy; this contributes to the NS gap.
BRIC: This refers to Brazil, Russia, India, and China, which are large, growing countries outside of Europe and North
America, which have a stabilized economy and export many products, including manufactured items.
Relevance: These countries have possibly broken out of the traditional poor south, and are reducing the NS gap.
Brain Drain: The brain drain occurs when "the best and the brightest" move out of their home country, reducing the brain
power and ability to innovate there. An example of this is who many students in Iowa move away from Iowa as soon as
they have graduated college.
Relevance: This is relevant because many of the smart innovators in the south move to northern countries, like the US.
This reduces southern countries abilities to innovate and export manufactured products because they have to buy that
technology, rather than developing it themselves. This increased the NS gap. This is also a drawback of using direct
foreign investment and multinational corporations to develop southern economies.
World Bank: The World Bank is a source of to reconstruct economies and to help states through future financial
difficulties; it was established in the 1940s and gives out long term developmental loans.
Relevance: These loans can be used to help develop southern economies and reduce the NS gap.
IMF: The International Monetary Fund is closely linked with the World Bank, but it is a source of short-term balance of
payment loans, rather than developmental goals. Relevance: The IMF is one of the pillars of the international financial system, but it does not give out loans for
development, like the World Bank, which would help to reduce the NS gap.
Neofunctionalism: A modification of functional theory to explain the developments of more general political supranational
bodies. Neofunctionalists argue that economic integration generates a political dynamic that drives integration further.
Relevance: Neofunctionalism is based in the creation of international organizations, which is a liberalism imperative and
Functionalism: Functionalism is the growth of specialized technical organizations that cross national borders;
technological and economic development lead to these structures. Examples of these functions include delivering mail
between countries or coordinating the use of rivers that cross borders.
Relevance: States can build upon functionalism to create neofunctionalism, which creates international organizations to
manage these functions; building of such institutions is a liberal imperative.
Treaty of Rome: Created in 1957, the treaty created two new international organizations: Euratom, and the European
Economic Community, which lifted tariffs and restrictions on the movement of goods across borders.
Relevance: EEC is an example of a neofunctionalist international organization; liberalist believe in building such
Maastricht treaty: Signed in Maastricht, Netherlands, in 1992, this renames the European Community as the European
Union, and committee to further progress three main areas: monetary union (creation of the Euro), justice and home
affairs (such as citizenship), and political and military integration. Relevance: This expanded an international organization and made it stronger; liberalism believes in building international
Lisbon treaty: Created at the end of 2007, this treaty created changes in both the structure and the day-to-day operations
of the EU, some of which promoted more supranational decision making.
Relevance: Building and increasing international organizations, such as the EU, is an imperative for liberalists.
Digital Divide: The gap in access to information technologies between rich and poor people/between the North and the
Relevance: This is another type of NS gap that contributes to the NS conflict, because people in the S are not as well off
as people in the N.
Cultural imperialism: The cultural dominance that is emerging in the global culture because of the spread of information
technology; it is primarily the culture of white Europeans and their descendants in rich areas of the world.
Relevance: This is part of the NS conflict because while the spread of information technology has empowering potential,
the global culture that comes with it is invasive and can become oppressive.
Tragedy in the Commons: A collective goods dilemma that is created when common environmental assets (such as the
world's fisheries) are depleted or degraded through the failure of states to cooperate effectively. One solution is to
"enclose" the commons (split them into individually owned pieces); international regimes can also be a partial solution.
Relevance: Countries need to cooperate effectively, and possibly create international regimes, in order to solve this
problem. Both of these solutions are imperatives of neoliberalists. Concept of Sustainable Development: Economic growth that does not deplete resources and destroy ecosystems so
quickly that the basis of that economic growth is itself undermined. The concept applies to boy the industrialized regions
and the global south.
Relevance: This is relevant because developing countries in Asia are in the middle of this debate; in the drive for rapid
economic growth, these countries have created serious pollution and other environmental problems. This creates
questions in the North-South conflict because if we allow the south to develop and decrease the NS gap, it could create
serious environmental problems. However, if we create more environmental regulations, the south will not be able to
develop as well.
Kyoto protocol: In 1997, this protocol