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BIOL 205 Study Guide - Spring 2019, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Hydrophobe, Cell Membrane, Yeast


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 205
Professor
Blaire Steinwand
Study Guide
Midterm

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BIOL 205

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Introduction to Cells
Cells - are the basic units of life that compose all living things. They are more different
structurally and functionally than they are similar and are very similar chemically
o Viruses are not considered living things because they need a host in order to
reproduce (cannot reproduce on their own)
o Characteristics Shared by All Cells (9):
Composed of 4 major macromolecules
Genetic material is carried and stored n the form of DNA
DNA is transcribed into RNA and RNA is translated into proteins (Central
Dogma)
Appearance, behavior, and function is dictated by proteins
Reproduce on their own
Respond to stimuli
Adapt to their environment
Are highly organized
Maintain a constant internal environment
Learning Objective #1 - Differentiate between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
Prokaryotes (Bacteria)
Eukaryotes (Protists, Fungi, Plants,
Animals)
Organelles
Little to none; do not have a
nucleus
Many; has a nucleus
DNA
Circular
Linear; found in nucleus
RNA and Protein
RNA and proteins synthesized in
the same place
RNA synthesized in the nucleus
and proteins in the cytosol
Organization
Unicellular
Unicellular or multicellular
Cell Division
Binary fission
Mitosis and meiosis
Size
Smaller in size
Larger in size
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Learning Objective #2 - Identify the various components of a eukaryotic cell and describe the
function of each organelle in a eukaryotic cell.
Microtubule tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton and can
provide shape and structure to the cytoplasm of the cell
Nuclear Envelope a membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm in eukaryotic
cells
Endoplasmic Reticulum site where most cell components and exports are made (i. e.
protein synthesis)
Mitochondria generates usable energy from food to power the cell’s activities
Lysosome deals with intracellular digestion, nutrient release, molecule breakdown, and
recycling of macromolecules
Plasma Membrane forms the external boundary of the cytoplasm of a cell and regulates
the passage of molecules in and out of the cytoplasm
Golgi Apparatus modifies and packages molecules made in the ER to secrete or transport
to another cell
Peroxisome provides a safe environment for biochemical reactions that release toxic
products
Endosome Series of compartments that sorts and recycles endocytosed materials to the
plasma membrane
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Learning Objective #3 - Provide three pieces of evidence that support the endosymbiotic
theory.
1. Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own DNA, reproduce by dividing in two, and
have their own ribosomes.
2. An early eukaryote may have benefited from taking up a bacterium since it can use the
oxygen produced from the bacterium to produce food molecules.
3. The engulfed bacteria/ mitochondria benefitted as it was able to live in the safe environment
of the early eukaryotic cell and be provided with a lot of nutrients.
The paramecium bursaria is a single celled eukaryote that does not have its own chloroplasts.
To get food and energy, it swallows green algae and instead of digesting them, it swims to
the light.
Learning Objective #4 - Compare and contrast the size of cells and their components.
Coffee Bean → Sesame Seed Sperm X-Chromosome
Mitochondria E. Coli Bacterium Phage tRNA Adenine
Learning Objective #5 - Give an example of how cell shape fits function.
Epithelial Cells line the small intestine and are involved in absorption. The microvilli
increase surface area so that more molecules can cross the membrane more efficiently
Red Blood Cells move through narrow vessels to carry oxygen throughout the body. They
are small and flexible enough to fit through such tiny tubes and their lack of nucleus allows
them to transport more oxygen
Neurons transmit signals over long distances. Their long length allows them to transit
messages quickly from any part of the body to the brain
Learning Objective #6 - Differentiate between light and fluorescence microscopy, SEM, and
TEM. Assess the usefulness and limitations of information obtained by different types of
microscopy.
Components of a Microscope
o Light and electrons are the sources of energy that will interact with the specimen
o The condenser and beam-splitting mirror are the components that promotes an
interaction between the sample and the energy
o The objective lens is used for magnification
o An eye and/ or a computer is used as a detector
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