POLI 130 Final: POLI 130 Final Exam Study Guide
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Department
Political Science
Course
POLI 130
Professor
rahsaan Maxwell
Semester
Spring

Description
POLI 130 Final Exam Study Guide Date: Monday, May 8th Time: 8AM FORMAT 8/12 IDS → From Part 3 of the course 2/3 Essays → Cumulative Key Terms From The Book/Readings ● Comparative politics: Study and comparison of domestic politics across countries ● Institutions: Organizations or activities that are self-perpetuating and valued for their own sake ● Politics: Struggle in any group for power that will give one or more persons the ability to make decisions for the larger group ● Comparative method: A way to compare cases and draw conclusions ● Inductive reasoning: The means by which we go from studying a case to generating a hypothesis ● Deductive reasoning: Starting with a puzzle and from there generating some hypothesis about cause and effect to test against a number of cases ● Correlation: Apparent association ● Causal relationship: Cause and effect relationship ● Multicausality: Many variables are tied together to produce particular outcomes ● Area studies: Regional focus ● Selection bias: is the selection of individuals, groups or data for analysis in such a way that proper randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of the population intended to be analyzed. ● Endogeneity: Problem of distinguishing cause and effect ● Modernization theory: Held that as societies developed they would become capitalist democracies, converging around a set of shared values and characteristics ● Behavioral revolution: Hoped to generate theories and generalizations that could help explain and even predict political activity ● Qualitative methods: Interviews, observations ● Quantitative methods: Statistics ● Rational Choice: Also called game theory. Scholars use this to study the rules and games by which politics is played and how human beings act on their preferences ● Freedom: Individual's ability to act independently without fear of restriction or punishment by the state or other individual groups in society ● Equality: Material standard of living shared by individuals within a community, society, or country ● State: Organization that maintains a monopoly of violence over a territory 1 ● Sovereignty: Ability to carry out policies within a territory independent of external actors and internal rivals ● Regime: Fundamental norms and rules of politics ● Government: Leadership that runs the state ● Legitimacy: Value whereby people recognize and accept something or someone as right and proper ● Traditional legitimacy: Often embodies historical myths and legends as well as the continuity between past and present ● Charismatic legitimacy: Based on the power of ideas or beliefs ● Rational-legal legitimacy: Based on 'neutral or rational' system of laws or procedures ● Federalism: Powers such as taxation, lawmaking, and security are devolved to regional bodies ● Asymmetric federalism: Power is divided unevenly between regional bodies (e.g.: Canada, India, Spain) ● Unitary states: Power is concentrated at the national level and local authority is limited (e.g.: China, Japan) ● Devolution: Decentralization of power ● Strong states: Able to fulfill basic tasks such as defending their territory making and enforcing rules and rights, collecting taxes, and managing the economy ● Weak states: Can't execute tasks very well; rules haphazardly applied; ● Failed states: When weak states break down ● Capacity: Ability of the state to wield power in order to carry out the basic tasks ○ High capacity: requires money, organization, legitimacy, and effective leadership. ● Autonomy: Ability of the state to wield its power independently of the public or international actors ● Democracy: Defined as political power exercised either indirectly or directly through participation, competition, and liberty ● Liberal democracy: A political system that promotes participation, competition, and liberty ● Republicanism: Emphasized separation of powers within a state and the representation of public through elected officials ● Head of state: Role that symbolizes and represents the people ● Head of government: Deals with everyday tasks of running the state ● Judicial review: Ensures that legislation is compatible with the constitution ● Concrete review: Courts can consider the constitutionality of legislation ● Abstract review: Courts may rule on legislation w/o a specific court case ● Parliamentary systems: is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from the legislature (parliament) and is also held accountable to that legislature. ● Vote of no confidence: How prime ministers can be removed ● Presidential systems: is a system of government where an executive branch is led by a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. In such a system, this branch exists separately from the legislature, to which it is not responsible and which it cannot, in normal circumstances, dismiss. 2 ● Semi-presidential systems: Tend to reflect the old distinction between reign and rule that existed under monarchies; is a form of government in which a directly elected president shares executive power with a prime minister and government appointed by, and serving with the continuing confidence of, a democratically elected legislature. ● SMD: Single member districts; A single-member district or single-member constituency is an electoral district that returns one office holder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature. This is also sometimes called single-winner voting or winner takes all. ● PR: Proportional representation; an electoral system in which parties gain seats in proportion to the number of votes cast for them. MMD (Multi member districts) ● Mixed electoral system: Voters are given two votes - one for candidate and other for a party ● Initiative: Citizens collecting signatures to put a question to a nationwide vote ● Civil Rights: Promotion of equality ● Civil Liberties: Refers to promotion of freedom ● Communism: Seeks to create human equality by eliminating private property and market forces ● Surplus value of labor: Value invested in any human-made good that can be used by another individual ● (Economic) base: Economic system of society, made of technology, and class relations between people ● Superstructure: All noneconomic institutions in a society ● False consciousness: Failure to understand the nature of one's exploitation; essentially amounts to buying into the superstructure ● Dialectical materialism: Process of historical change that is not evolutionary but revolutionary. Existing base and superstructure would come into conflict with new technological innovations, generating growing opposition to the existing order. Would culminate in revolution, overthrowing the old base and superstructure ● Dictatorship of proletariat: Temporary period after capitalism has been overthrown during which vestiges of the old base and superstructure are eradicated ● Proletariat: Working class ● Bourgeoisie: Property owning class ● Vanguard of the proletariat: Lenin's argument that because of false consciousness an elite communist party would have to carry out revolution; otherwise, historical conditions would automatically lead to capitalism's demise ● Nomenklatura: Influential jobs in government chosen by Communist Party ● Politburo: Political bureau ● Central Committee: Acted as a cabinet and legislature ● Glasnost: USSR policy that encouraged public debate ● Perestroika: USSR policy that encouraged institutional reforms ● Shock therapy: Bringing an end to central planning and state subsidies overnight 3 ● Non democratic regimes: Those in which a political regime is controlled by a small group of individuals who exercise power over the state without being constitutionally responsible to the public ● Authoritarianism: the enforcement or advocacy of strict obedience to authority at the expense of personal freedom. ● Totalitarianism: Main objective is to use power to transform the total institutional fabric of a country to meet an ideological goal. Does so through violence and terror. ● Resource trap: refers to the paradox that countries with an abundance of natural resources, specifically non-renewable resources like minerals and fuels, tend to have less economic growth, less democracy, and worse development outcomes than countries with fewer natural resources. This could be because of conflict that the resources create, governments don’t have to tax its citizens, less financial accountability. ● Populism: Elites and established institutions do not fully represent the will of the people and that a new movement, free from ideology and often led by a charismatic leader, can usher in a new order. ● Clientelism: The state co-opts members of the public by providing specific benefits to a person in return for public support. Relies on individual patronage rather than organizations that serve a large group of people and it is more ad hoc than corporatism. ● Kleptocracy: “Rule by theft” Those in power seek only to drain the state of assets and resources ● Patrimonialism: is a form of governance in which all power flows directly from the leader. This constitutes essentially the blending of the public and private sector. These regimes are autocratic or oligarchic and exclude the upper and middle classes from power. ● Bureaucratic authoritarianism: A regime in which the state bureaucracy and the military share a belief that a technocratic leadership, focused on rational, objective, and technical expertise, can solve the problems of a country ● Illiberal/hybrid regimes: An illiberal democracy, also called a partial democracy, low intensity democracy, empty democracy, or hybrid regime, is a governing system in which, although elections take place, citizens are cut off from knowledge about the activities of those who exercise real power because of the lack of civil liberties. Rule of law is weak. ● Middle income countries: Also known as newly industrializing countries (NICs). Countries that have experienced dramatic rates of economic growth and democratization to the point that they resemble developed democratic nations ● Lower income countries: LDCs. $4,000 per capita GDP. ● Developing countries: Middle income countries and lower income countries ● Empires: Single political authorities that have under their sovereignty a large number of external regions or territories and different people ● Imperialism: Describes the system whereby a state extends its power to directly control territory, resources, and people beyond its borders ● Colonialism: Indicates the physical occupation of a foreign territory through military force, business, or settlers. Means for consolidating empires. ● Neocolonialism: Indirect form of imperialism in which prior-colonized nations are dependent on their colonizers 4 ● Import substitution: Countries restrict imports, raising tariff or nontariff barriers to spur demand for local alternatives ○ EX: Argentina ● Export oriented industrialization: Sought out technologies and developed industries that focused specifically on export, capitalizing on what is known as the product life cycle ○ EX: South Korea ● Washington Consensus: Also known as neoliberalism, structural adjustment programs. is a set of 10 economic policy prescriptions considered to constitute the "standard" reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.C.–based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, and the US Treasury Department. Requires countries to privatize state-run firms, end subsidies, reduce tariff barriers, shrink the size of the state, and welcome foreign investment ● Middle income trap: A situation where countries experience economic growth but are unable to develop at a speed necessary to catch up with developed countries ● Democratic backsliding: meaning the state-led debilitation or elimination of the political institutions sustaining an existing democracy ● Promissory coups: State that their temporary intervention is necessary for democracy ● Executive aggrandizement: When executive officials weaken executive powers one by one ● Informal institutions: informal institutions are socially shared rules, usually unwritten, that are created, communicated, and enforced outside of officially sanctioned channels’. Informal institutions are equally known but not laid down in writing and they tend to be more persistent than formal rules ● Formal institutions: formal institutions are openly codified, in the sense that they are established and communicated through channels that are widely accepted as official ● Complementary informal institutions: Coexist with effective formal institutions ● Accommodating informal institutions: Creates incentives to behave in ways that alter the substantive effects of formal institutions but without violating them ● Substitutive informal institutions: Achieve what formal institutions were designed to achieve but failed to do ● Competing informal institutions: Have incentives that aren’t compatible with formal institutions ● Political violence: Politically motivated violence outside of state control ● Ideational explanations: Ideas play an important role in political violence in the way they set out a worldview, diagnose a set of problems, provide a resolution, and describe the means of getting there ● Institutional explanations: It may be the institutions contain values or norms that implicitly or explicitly encourage political violence, or that they constrain human activity, thus provoking political violence ● Individual explanations: Emphasizes personal motivations ○ Psychological factors 5 ○ Political violence is seen as a rational act ● Revolution: Public seizure of the state in order to overturn the existing government and regime → still involves violence to a degree ○ Shifting Views of Revolution ■ First: Pre WWII → studies of revolutionary events ■ Second: Post WWII → studies of disruptive change as driving revolution action ■ Third: 1970s-present → studies of domestic and international state power as providing the opening for revolution ● Relative deprivation model: Revolutions are less a function of specific conditions than of the gap between actual conditions and public expectations ○ EX: 1979 Iranian Revolution and 2011 Egyptian Revolution ● Terrorism: Use of violence by nonstate actors against civilians to achieve a political goal ● State-sponsored terrorism: When states sponsor non-state terrorist groups as a means to extend their power by proxy, using terrorism as an instrument in foreign policy ○ EX: Pakistan sponsoring terrorism in the Muslim dominated state, Kashmir, in India ● Guerilla war: Involves non-state combatants who largely accept traditional rules of war and target the state rather than civilians ○ EX: Vietnam ● Nihilism: A belief that all institutions and values are meaningless and that the only redeeming value a person can embrace is violence ● Developed democracies: Refers to countries that have institutionalized democracy and a high level of economic development and prosperity ● Modern: secular, rational, materialistic, technological, bureaucratic, and concerned more with individual freedom than collective equality ● Postmodern: Existing modern institutions may give way to new ones as these countries transform from modernity to something else ● Intergovernmental system: system in which things that happens between two or more governments or nations, or between levels of the same government. ○ EX: United Nations ● Supranational system: A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states. ○ EX: EU ● Political economy: Study of how politics and economics are related and how their relationship shapes the balance between freedom and equality ● Markets: Interactions between the forces of supply and demand, and they allocate resources through the process of those interactions ● Property: Refers to the ownership of the goods and services exchanged through markets ● Public goods: Can be defined as those goods, provided or secured by the state, that are available for society and indivisible, meaning that no on private person or organization can own them 6 ● Social expenditures: State’s provision of public benefits, such as education, healthcare, and transportation, or what is commonly called welfare or the welfare state ● GDP: Gross domestic product; Total market value of goods and services produced by one country in a year ● Central bank: An institution that controls how much money is flowing through the economy as well as how much it costs to borrow money in that economy ● Inflation: An increase in the overall prices in the economy when demand outstrips supply ● Hyperinflation: Inflation that is higher than 50% a month for more than 2 months in a row ● Deflation: When too many goods are chasing too little money ● Regulations: Rules or orders that set the boundaries of a given procedure ● Tariffs: Taxes on imported goods ● Quotas: Limit the quantity of a good coming into the country ● Non Tariff regulatory barriers: May create health, packaging, or other restrictions and whose purpose is to protect its citizens and make it difficult or expensive for foreign goods to be sold in the local market ● Comparative advantage: Ability to produce a particular good or service more efficiently than other countries ● Political-economic system: Actual relationship between political and economic institutions in a particular country, as well as the policies and outcomes they create ● Capitalism: System of private property and free markets ● Neocorporatism: A system of policy making involving the state, labor, and businesses. ● Mercantilism: Focuses on the needs of the state; Focus in particular on their position in the international system, for they believe that economic weakness undermines national sovereignty ● Parastatals: Partial or full state ownership of specific industries in mercantilist states ● PPP: Purchasing power parity; attempts to estimate the buying power of income in each country by comparing similar costs, such as food and housing, by using the US as a benchmark ● Gini index: A mathematical formula that measures the amount of economic inequality in a society ● HDI: Human Development Index; Created by the United Nations Development Program, not only looks at the total amount of wealth in a society and its distribution, but also gives equal weight to income, health, and educational indicators. ● Economic liberalization: Cutting taxes, reducing regulation, privatizing state-owned businesses and public goods, and expanding property rights ● Monopoly: A market controlled by a single producer ● Laissez-Faire: “Let do.” Hold that the economy should be allowed to do what it wishes ● Globalization: the process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale. 7 ● International regime: They link states together through rules and norms that shape their relationships to one another, usually regarding some specific issue (greenhouse gases or trade) ● Bretton Woods System: An economic regime created in 1944. It was created to manage international economic relations, whose instability commonly cited as a driving force behind the Great Depression and WWII. Three important institutions that emerged from this system are: IMF, World Bank, and WTO ● Foreign direct investment: The purchase of assets in a country by a foreign firm ● Offshore outsourcing: is the practice of hiring an external organization to perform some business functions Lectures Lecture 1: Introduction ○ Transition to modern nation states ■ Economic ■ Cultural ■ Political ○ Nation state: citizen involvement, common identity Lecture 2: Democracy ○ Greek: “rule of the people” ○ Direct democracy ■ Took place in Greece ■ Advantages: full participation - no room for corruption ■ Disadvantages: hard to get that many people together ○ Representative democracy ■ Most countries have this → ELECTIONS ○ Electoral democracy ■ Minimal democracies ■ Non competitive elections ■ Ex: Libya, Syria, Iraq ○ Liberal democracy ■ More freedom ■ Five features ■ Responsible government ■ Free and fair competition ■ Equal rights to political participation ■ Civil liberties ■ Laws ■ Ex: Europe, New Zealand Lecture 3: Bureaucracy and Political Parties ○ Bureaucracy: non elected administration ■ Central to democracy ■ Features ■ Organization ■ Procedures ■ Merit ○ Feudalism 8 ■ Monarch, aristocrats, peasants ○ Political parties: groups with common interests to seek control of the government ■ Three common functions ■ Coordination ■ Selection/recruitment of leaders ■ Representation ■ Left-Right → dynamic ■ Originated in Revolutionary France ■ Right: wanted king ■ Left: wanted democracy ■ 1900s ■ Right: businesses ■ Left: workers ■ Party types ■ Conservative: protecting established interests, not too many changes in society ■ Christian Democrats: inject Christian values or conservative social values into politics; unlike conservatives, they are progressive on social welfare ■ Liberals: Focused on liberty and limited government In US: Libertarians ■ Socialists/Social Democrats: Help working class, expand rights, more social welfare programs, most embraced some form of economic liberalism ■ Extremists (Special Issue): Strong connections with voters → issue based; hard to get influence because they have to make compromises with other parties Lecture 4: UK ○ Transition to modern nation state: early, slow, and limited ■ Early: 13th, 14th, 15th century ■ Slow: many small steps vs. one big revolution ■ Limited: they still have a monarchy ○ Struggle for power between monarchs and aristocrats ■ Magna Carta (1215) ■ English Civil War (1640s) ■ Glorious Revolution (1688) ○ Three seminal constitutional laws ■ Petition of Right (1628) ■ Restricted non-parliamentary taxation ■ Restriction on quartering of soldiers ■ Ends imprisonment without cause ■ Restrictions on martial law ■ Habeas Corpus Act (1679) ■ Can’t be put in prison w/o being formally charged ■ Important historically because it comes at key moment after Civil War and before the Glorious Revolution ■ Bill of Rights (1689) 9 ■ Part of Glorious Revolution ■ Aggressive statement laying out concept that people have series of basic rights that can’t be denied by the government ■ Included: ■ No royal interference with the law ■ No taxation w/o parliament ■ Freedom to petition the monarch w/o fear of retribution ■ No standing army during peacetime w/o consent of parliament ■ The right to bear arms (solely for defense and w/ restrictions) ■ No royal interference with parliamentary elections ■ Freedom of speech in parliamentary debates ■ No cruel and unusual punishment ○ Transfer of power from aristocrats to the masses ■ Enclosure system ■ Moved masses into cities à labor laws/petition for rights ○ Industrialization paved way for democracy ■ Economic influence on urban middle class ■ Dense concentration of urban workers ○ Reforms Acts ■ 1832: Ended process of rotten boroughs ■ Districts have to reflect population ■ 1867: Extended right to vote to all urban working men ■ 1884: Extended right to vote to rural working men Lecture 5: France ○ Transition: Revolutionary and dramatic ○ Louis XIV (Reigned from 1643-1715) ■ One of the strongest rulers ■ How did he make monarchy stronger? ■ Centralized legal system ■ Expanded territory ■ Built Versailles ○ Reasons monarchical system in France didn’t continue (i.e.: French Revolution) ■ Financial Crisis ■ Famine ■ Ideology ■ Enlightenment ■ Social Contract ○ French Revolution of 1789 ■ Comprised of three revolutions ■ Estates’ General ■ Bastille ■ Great Fear ○ Declaration of Rights and Man and Citizen (1789) 10 ○ Reign of Terror (1789-1799) ■ Ruled by radical republicans who insisted all people be equal ■ Wanted to abolish Catholic Church and feudal society ■ Killed people ○ Napoleon ■ Elected in 1802 → DICTATOR ○ `19th century à INSTABILITY ○ Officially became democracy in late 19 th century Lecture 6: United States ○ Transition was moderate ○ Didn’t have previous regime ■ Advantages: ■ Didn’t have to deal with loyalists ■ Disadvantages: ■ Didn’t have institutions ■ No bureaucratic structure ■ Variation in fiscal policy ○ Not a big push for absolute equality ■ Slowly expanded rights over 200 years Lecture 7: Germany and Italy ○ Transition: late and top down ○ Transition: Germany ■ Before ■ Holy Roman Empire ■ 300 political entities à ineffective and decentralized ■ German Confederation (1815) ■ Zollverein ■ Trade ■ 1848 Revolutions ■ Inspired by French Revolutions ■ Germany à harsh winters, famine, and growing middle class ■ Class Coalitions ■ Middle class failed so they went to the top down method ■ Unification of Germany 1871 ■ 1864: Defeat of Denmark – set Northern border ■ 1866: Defeat Austria – set who will be in control of New Germany ■ 1870: Defeat of Napoleon ■ 1871: Wilhelm crowned Emperor of Germany and Bismarck the chancellor ■ German industrialization ■ Banks, business, and government ■ Germany industrialized before becoming a democracy ○ Italy ■ Similar to Germany - united by one kingdom ■ Differences from Germany - unification was unsuccessful ■ 19thcentury Italian chaos ■ 1848 Revolutions 11 ■ Giuseppe Mazzini ■ Promoted democracy ■ Papal Resistance ■ Church told people how to live their lives and to live their lives they shouldn’t participate in democracy ■ March 1864: New Italian King – Victor Emmanuel II ■ Cavour ■ Poor leadership ■ Military ■ Died and left Italy in poor recession ■ N/S divide ■ North: Wealthy and industrializing ■ South: Poor and agricultural ○ Italy and Germany’s transition made it vulnerable to fascism Lecture 8: Russia ○ SLOW ■ 19thcentury ■ While everyone was transitioning, Russia still a huge, agricultural, feudal empire ○ Famous Rulers ■ Peter the Great (1682-1725) ■ Influenced by the West à strong monarchies ■ Catherine the Great (1762-1798) ■ One of the strongest monarchs in Russian history ■ Prussian ■ Reformed government ■ Gave more power to local levels ■ Nicholas I ■ Became czar in 1825 ■ Crushed Decembrist revolt ■ Most conservative Russian monarchs à resisted Western influence ■ Famous for three-part ideology ■ Orthodoxy ■ Autocracy ■ Nationality ○ End of Russian Empire/Monarchy in 20 thcentury (WWI) ■ Introduction of communists ■ Radicals who wanted to distribute land to peasants ■ Wasn’t supposed to happen in Russia bc no working class ■ Violent reaction to extreme monarchy ○ Cold War (1947-1991) ■ Only two surviving countries at end of WWII: Russia and US became superpowers ■ Tensions that caused Cold War ■ War on Eastern front (USSR) much harder/violent than war on Western front (US) 12 ■ War on Eastern front lasted longer ■ USSR lost 20 million people vs. US lost 1 million ■ Debate on whether the US stayed on the sidelines to let Russia and Germany weaken each other ■ After war, US wanted to maintain military presence in Europe to maintain peace and prevent spread of communism ■ Rivalry on many levels ■ Conventional level ■ Competition for economic and military power ■ Fought over spheres of influence ■ 3 key proxy wars ■ Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) ■ Iran (1979) ■ Afghanistan (1979-1989) ■ 1989, communist regimes began to fall ■ 1991: USSR fell Lecture 9: East Asian Developmental State ○ Three main features ■ Long term planning ■ Regulation and bureaucracy ■ Economic development over political reform ○ Japan ■ Late modernization → 19 thcentury ■ Weak emperor ■ Aristocrats not threatened by urban capitalists ■ Closed to outsiders from 1600s to 1850s ■ 1850s → things change ■ 1853: Matthew Perry arrives in Japan and forces them into American trade ■ 1868: Meiji Restoration ■ Unify country ■ What style of democracy to use? à Germany ■ Important to note that the Meiji reform didn’t bring democracy to Japan by any means, at all ■ 1920s → major economic and military power ■ Japanese developmental state ■ Long term planning (Zaibatsu) ■ Huge company ■ Ex: Mitsubishi ■ Upside: easy to control financially ■ Downside: some investments were never profitable ■ Regulation and bureaucracy (MITI) ■ Ministry of International Trade and Finance ■ Responsible for choosing which technological innovations were approved or denied ■ Non-elected bureaucrats ■ Pro: rationally monitor the economy 13 ■ Con: Mistakes were potentially large ■ Focus on economic development over political reform (LDP ■ Liberal Democratic Party ■ 1955-2009, then again from 2012-present ■ Main ideology: stability and economic growth ■ Used big businesses to promote business ■ Supported low tax rates ■ Supported worker friendly laws (jobs for life) ■ Societal oppression ■ Cons: Without accountability, people become vulnerable to corruption à BRIBERY ○ Developmental state as a compromise ■ Tries to balance capitalism and socialism ■ Democracy: capitalism good for wealth, democracy to pacify people ■ Authoritarianism: Control is good for stability ■ Middle ground? ■ Most successful developmental states supported by US, so maybe there is no middle ground Lecture 10: Colonialism ○ Four main goals ■ Land ■ Resources ■ Markets ■ Spread Culture ○ Americas ■ Earliest and longest colonization ■ European military success b/c.. ■ Disease ■ More military advanced ■ Implications of colonization in Americas ■ Population movement ■ Cultural influence ■ Wealth ■ Delayed Transition ○ Asia ■ 5th-16th century: Europeans migrate to Asia ■ 1500s: Trading ports appear ■ Disease didn’t knock them out b/c constant interaction ■ 1700s: British involvement in India ■ Britain took Dutch holdings ■ 1600-1858: Main British involvement was through the East India Company ■ Official colony for 90 years ■ French Indochina ■ Vietnam, Cambodia, & Laos ■ Rest of colonialism in Asia was small scale 14 ○ Africa ■ Throughout history, both sides (Euro and Africa) colonized each other ■ 16th-18th century → contact pretty limited ■ Why Europeans got foothold in Africa ■ Slave Trade winded down ■ Medical advancements ■ Competition ■ Low population density = vulnerability ■ No large standing armies ■ Wars of conquest didn’t take place ■ Berlin Conference 1884 ■ Headed by Otto von Bismarck ■ Divided up Africa ■ Colonization was relatively short b/c.. ■ Climate ■ Never had an establishment of significant populations ■ Resource-focused ○ Profitability? ■ Asia and Africa not profitable ■ Difficulty with natives ■ Lack of resources ■ “Divide and Rule” Lecture 11: Decolonization ○ Americas ■ First to decolonize → 1700s to 1800s ■ Caribbean ■ Haitian Revolution ○ Asia ■ India ■ Independent from UK in 1947 ■ Demonstrations/social movements and WWII caused Great Britain to let go of the colony ■ French Indochina ■ Eight year war → refused to let go ■ British vs. French way decolonization ■ British ■ Small # of people living in colonies ■ Focused on making money ■ Natives apart of government ■ No pressure to influence Indians culturally ■ Invested in infrastructure ■ French ■ Cultural colonization ■ Not the same level of investment of infrastructure as Britain ○ Africa ■ Colonialism shorter here than anywhere else 15 ■ Common theme: ■ Violent wars in 1950s and 1960s ■ Source of raw materials/natural resources ○ Explanations for Global Inequality ■ Population ■ Country too large → harder to feed people ■ Resources ■ Having resources → more wealthy ■ Curse? (Resource Trap) ■ Corrupt governments, have a target on a country’s heads ■ Culture ■ Certain parts of culture more prone to being wealthy ■ EX: Protestant Ethic ■ Policies/Institutions ■ Government can help or hurt economy ■ Determining whether a policy is doing either can take years ■ Postcolonial effects ○ Haiti ■ One of the wealthiest colonies in the 1700s → sugar ■ No pre-existing political structure for these slaves to use, so there was no system for once they become independent. ■ Haitians kicked the French out ■ French still considered them a colony and wanted reparations ■ Debt wasn’t paid off until 1947 ■ First slave rebellion → dangerous ■ Late development led to more top-down authority and wanted to quickly industrialize. ○ Uganda ■ Prime example of bad decisions ■ Colonized by Britain 1800s-1962 ■ After independence, there were elections but people contested them ■ Idi Amin comes into power - seizes power while the leader was out of the country on a meeting. ■ He wanted a peaceful society, wanted a prosperous democracy. ■ Only in power for 8 years, but killed several hundred thousands of people. ■ He wanted to get rid of all British influence, expelled the 80 thousand Indians that came here to become professionals. ■ Removed from power in 1979 ○ Neocolonialism ■ Former colonial power may still be in control. 16 ■ No longer done with direct occupation of troops, but rather from a distance with informal and indirect needs. ■ EX: Goods/services ■ Rich countries can exploit the colonies from home. ■ EX: IMF (International Monetary Fund) ■ Established in WW2 to bring stability to the global economic system. ■ Loans to postcolonial countries → conditions ■ Networks and connections ■ Prior colonies often rely on prior connections and networking their colonizers established Lecture 12: Democratic Breakdowns ○ Germany ■ Prior to WWI ■ More like electoral democracy ■ Parliament was weak ■ Bismarck established first welfare state → goal was to appease workers ■ Unlike Britain where reason was to get votes ■ Versailles Treaty ■ Ended WWI ■ Goal was to punish Germany ■ Reperations ■ Land losses ■ Rhineland ■ Most valuable land in Germany → industrialization ■ Weimar Republic (1919-1933) ■ Government after WWI ■ Combo of problems ■ Economic ■ Large monetary reparations ■ Loss of rhineland → no access to industrialization which would make Germany money to pay off the reparations ■ Political ■ Not accepted by people → wasn’t getting anything done → not accepted by people ■ Left Wing: Communist Revolution ■ Right Wing: Bismarck ■ Middle: ??? ■ Great Depression (1930s) ■ Particularly bad because of the reparations Germany was forced to pay ■ US initially gave loans but had to stop bc of Great Depression ■ Hitler and the Nazi Party ■ 1932: Nazi party gets 32% of the votes 17 ■ Left wing and right wing didn’t like them bc they didn’t strictly adhere to their ideologies ■ Left wing: Worker’s rights ■ Right wing: Aristocracy ■ 70% of the rest of parties came together as a coalition → hard to rule bc so many different ideologies ■ 1933: Hitler becomes Chancellor ■ Hitler declares state of emergency and becomes dictator shortly after ■ Lessons to take away from Germany ■ Must agree on the rules of the game ■ Effective ←→ Support ○ Argentina ■ Often considered wealthiest country to suffer military coup ■ Politics ■ 1818: Became independent from Spain ■ 1853: First federal constitution ■ Voting limited to wealthy men (mostly prior colonists) ■ Beef Wealth ■ Most of the money came from cattle plantations ■ Progressive Social Rights ■ Secularized education ■ Labor laws ■ Expanded voting rights ■ Universal male suffrage: 1912 ■ Before many countries in Europe ■ Worries in Argentina ■ Strong agricultural elite ■ Wealth still concentrated here ■ No professionals who make $ from commerce ■ Weak middle class → couldn’t threaten elites ■ Radical urban workers ■ Rooted in frustration w/ agricultural elite ■ 1930s → trouble ■ Great Depression ■ No middle group to moderate between elite and upset workers ■ 1930: Right Wing Coup ■ Conservative elites ■ Still had elections → used massive fraud to win ■ 1943: Left wing coup ■ Did have free and fair elections ■ Not a threat b/c they had the masses on their side ■ Juan Peron ■ Elected after left wing coup (1946) 18 ■ Complicated b/c.. ■ Pushed traditional left wing policies ■ Make Argentina industrialized ■ Limited civil liberties ■ 1955 coup → removed him from power Lecture 13: Different Conceptions of Democracy ○ Will Afghanistan/Iraq follow Germany/Japan? ■ Differences ■ Germany and Japan were completely defeated ■ Not the case in Afghanistan and Iraq ■ Old regimes not completely defeated ■ Didn’t pose much of a threat to democratic development ■ Afghanistan → Taliban still a threat ■ Emerged after breakdown of USSR ■ Long series of political chaos ■ ⅓ of land controlled by insurgency (Taliban) → largest percentage since 2001 when we invaded ■ Iraq → waves of insurgency ○ Iraq Domestic divisions ■ Three main groups: Sunni, Shia, Kurd ■ Sunni: Minority (Saddam Hussain) ■ Shia: Majority ■ Kurd ■ Claimed to be a nation that doesn’t have a state ○ International environment ■ Post WWII: Germany and Japan fully blamed and forced to become democracies ■ Islam vs. West → less receptive to democracy ■ Iraq and Afghanistan don’t have democratic neighbors ○ Political Campaigns ■ Campaign finance ■ Regulation of money ■ Public ■ Governments can directly subsidize political parties with funds ■ Governments can match private donations ■ Governments can issue rebates ■ Depending on how well you do → get money back from government ■ Advantages: ■ Decreases likelihood politicians will be indebted to wealthy donors ■ Levels playing field ■ Can create more trust and faith in the political system ■ Disadvantages: 19 ■ Some believe that governments should not be involved in certain aspects of society (I.E.: politics) ■ Government could potentially be inefficient and couldn’t handle the money properly ■ Private ■ Most of money comes from people outside of the government ■ Ex: people, companies, etc. ■ Benefits ■ Promotes civic involvement ■ Downsides ■ Arms race to get money ■ TIME ■ Huge gaps between wealthy and poor candidates that aren’t related to their qualifications, but are related to connections ■ Fear that corruption will take place in order to appease wealthy donors ■ Internal ■ Internal party budgets ■ Raise money from party members ■ US: Not that hard ■ Other countries: Pay dues, volunteer work → often main source of funding for campaigns ■ Advantages: ■ Open to public ■ Get people engaged ■ Disadvantages: ■ Vulnerable to corruption (politicians could be indebted to rich people → could be worse than the public system ■ Does it matter? ■ Yes → shapes the political system ■ No → everything vulnerable to corruption ■ Contribution and spending limits ■ No limits on either contributions or spending ■ Usually is in countries in which there is robust public financing ■ Usually limits on how long campaign can last ■ Ex: Australia, Germany, Sweden, etc. 20 ■ Limit both contributions and spending ■ Good way at exercising a lot of control ■ Limits can still be high ■ Ex: Israel ■ Limit donations, but don’t limit spending ■ Pretty rare → Ex: US ■ Endless arms race on more and more money ■ Limit spending, but no limit donations ■ Ex: Austria, New Zealand, UK ■ Seems like a pretty sane and smart spending ■ If you limit spending, no need to chase donations ■ One loophole: corruption → one big donor can supply all of the money ■ Doesn’t tend to happen ■ Vote Buying ■ Broad term that relates to giving people goods or services in exchange for their votes ■ Usually receive it before election, and thus, you have to vote ■ Most common in local elections ■ Depends on how competitive election is ■ Only relevant in places that have competition ■ Weak institutions are needed for effective vote buying ■ EX: Philippines, Latin America ■ How do politicians enforce vote buying? ■ Monitoring ■ Monitor how you cast your ballots ■ Make your vote visible ■ Monitor the votes in aggregate way → neighborhood or district ■ Gifts could be in neighborhood/district area ■ Ex: Sewer pipes? ■ Dispensed conditionality ■ Only dispensing money/goods on the condition if the politician wins ■ Usually neighborhood-wide ■ Personal obligation ■ Can use key figures in the social community to convince friends, 21 relatives, and neighbors to vote for someone ■ Ex: Thailand → campaign workers would find key village leader to convince the gifts ■ Can relate this to endorsements in the US ■ Especially important when the ballot is secret ■ Clientelistic democracies ■ Ruled by patron-client relationship ■ Patron: politician who purchases support from people through goods and services Lecture 14: Authoritarianism ○ Zimbabwe ■ Rhodesia → Zimbabwe ■ British controlled it from 1888-1965 (It was named Rhodesia under the British) ■ Decolonization ■ First major attempt came by white settlers ■ Didn’t like sharing power for the benefit of making it more profitable for people in Britain ■ Claimed that the black rebels only wanted to cause trouble ■ Black rebels really wanted to transition it into modern nation state ■ Majority of Africans supported black rebels → difficult for white settlers to win b/c they were minority ■ Formally declared independence in 1965 ■ 1965-1980 ■ Black rebels vs. white settlers → fight over control/power ■ Britain/community didn’t support neither white settlers or black rebels ■ White settlers: challenged British authority ■ Black rebels: Supported by Soviets → British couldn’t support that ■ Robert Mugabe vs. Joseph Nkomo ■ Two main groups of rebels ■ Both fighting against white settlers, but were also fighting each other to claim to truly represent black masses ■ Tensions 22 ■ Ethnic ■ Mugabe was part of largest group - Shona (70-80% of population) ■ Nkomo was part of the largest minority group (15% of population) ■ Personal power struggle ■ Structural impediments to democracy ■ Timing ■ US: 1700s → Could afford for slow industrialization → most everyone else was feudal ■ Zimbabwe: Became democracy in 1980 → whole world is industrialized ■ Have to quickly become a modern nation state and quickly come up to speed so they can compete with other powers in the world ■ Speed ■ UK: Slowly gave rights to more and more people over several centuries ■ US: Madison vs. Jefferson debates → no mass voting → not mass revolts → masses were irrelevant ■ Zimbabwe: 1980 → people expected to vote immediately ■ Want immediate results → couldn’t get that b/c government was in its infancy ■ B/c democracy wasn’t working out → looked towards authoritarianism ■ Nature of cleavage ■ US: Madison vs. Jefferson - ideological split ■ Can compromise b/c of ideological split ■ Zimbabwe: Debates between Mugabe and Nkomo weren’t about ideology, just about power → who would run ■ Not much of an opportunity to negotiate/compromise → feels like zero sum ■ Democracy in Zimbabwe ■ First election was in 1980 ■ Mugabe’s party won in a landslide (57 seats) ■ Became prime minister ■ No evidence of vote fraud ■ Nkomo → won only 20 seats ■ No cross cutting cleavage 23 ■ Notion that each of these societal divisions are different ■ Political interests are diverse → not one dividing line that can split society ■ If all these people share all of these things → much easier to split society ■ No compromise ■ Gukurahundi ■ Ethnic cleansing of Mugabe’s opponents between 1980- 1987 ■ Even though he won the election by a landslide → still didn’t feel secure ■ Some form of organized rebellion against Mugabe ■ Disgruntled soldiers from Nkomo’s side who spoke against Mugabe ■ A couple hundred of these soldiers attacked government properties, stockpiled weapons, and attack ethnic majority ■ Justification for a response ■ Arrested initial suspects & put them on trial ■ Didn’t work for Mugabe because.. ■ Courts wouldn’t convict because lack of evidence ■ Courts too slow ■ Mugabe went way too far in response to the couple hundred soldiers ■ Went village to village, rounding up supposed dissidents, marched in central square, force them to praise majority group → execution ■ Killed 20,000 people to deal with the couple hundred soldiers ■ South Africa enticed this because they were afraid revolution would spread ■ 1987 - finally ended ■ Mugabe and Nkomo tired → agreed to sign peace treaty ■ Brought Nkomo into government as a symbol of power sharing ■ Mugabe increased his power the next year ■ 2008 Elections (Morgan Tsvangirai) ■ 1980s - 2000s: Each time an election takes place → Mugabe claims he has to use violence in order to easily win 24 ■ Pre election 2008.. ■ People were tired of Mugabe → in power 28 years ■ Mugabe was old (84) ■ Economy sucked ■ People wanted change ■ Morgan Tsvangirai ■ Opponent against Mugabe ■ Same ethnicity as Mugabe ■ Parliamentary elections → Tsvangirai wins, Mugabe loses ■ Presidential votes ■ First round → too close to declare a winner ■ Claims of electoral fraud ■ Second round ■ Between first and second rounds,Mugabe stepped up his game ■ Beat, killed, and kidnapped Tsvangirai supporters ■ Tsvangirai dropped out to save his supporters ■ Mugabe wins 93% of the vote and wins ■ Violence sparked international community to put pressure on Mugabe to account for himself and be held accountable ■ 2009: Mugabe becomes president, Tsvangirai becomes prime minister ■ 1 month after he comes into power → Tsvangirai “happens” to get into car accident → wife dies, he survives ■ Purpose to intimidate → didn’t work ■ Tsvangirai ran again in 2013 → lost ■ Authoritarian Mismanagement ■ Land reform ■ Occurred in 1990s when Tsvangirai’s party was increasingly popular ■ Idea behind land reform: to redistribute land in equitable manner ■ British people still owned most of the land ■ Black people either worked for the British or had small plots of land ■ Mugabe didn’t do anything initially bc the land was profitable and added to the prosperity of the economy ■ 2000.. ■ Did it to get black support 25 ■ Completely botched it ■ Seized all land, killed white farmers who resisted ■ 4,000 were gone in a few years ■ Divided land amongst his friends ■ Didn’t know shit about farming ■ Agricultural production plummeted ■ Producing 10-30% of what is was producing before ■ Loss of food and loss of money ■ Food shortages ■ International sanctions ■ Stopped giving money ■ Spiral of hyperinflation Lecture 15: How Do We Get Democracy? ○ 3 waves of democracy ■ 1st: Early 19th century to early 20th century ■ Liberal democratic progress ■ Backsliding: WWII ■ 2nd: 1945-1960s ■ Tried to fix backsliding that occurred in WWII ■ Latin America becoming democratic ■ Decolonization of Asia and Africa ■ Backsliding ■ New democracies (Africa, Asia, Mediterranean) were decentralized and weakened ■ 3rd: 1970-Now ■ Portugal, Greece, and Spain’s transition back to democracy ■ Fall of USSR 1990s ○ How is democracy introduced? ■ Dictated → SECOND BEST WAY ■ Reformists come into power and change government ■ Government realizes it's on the brink of revolution and change ■ EX: Spain ■ Negotiated → BEST WAY ■ Negotiation between old regime and new regime ■ Usually happens when government realizes it can’t maintain power without some sort of negotiation ■ EX: South Africa ■ Previous rulers abdicated ■ Imposed ■ Lose a war and occupying country imposes democracy ■ EX: Germany ○ What leads to democratic transition? ■ Demographic factors ■ Wealth ■ Necessary but not sufficient 26 ■ Too little vs. too much ■ Education ■ Necessary but not sufficient b/c even though you’re educated, you’re not going to necessarily avoid government manipulation ■ Capitalism/Middle Class ■ Balances rich and poor ■ US: Want to take place in politics that dictate businesses bc businesses → wealth ■ Saudi Arabia: OIL → government takes care of people → no private enterprise ■ Psychological ■ Common identity ■ Diversity with groups that are more or less evenly divided → easier for power sharing arrangement ■ Bad examples that can tear apart democracy: ■ Majority vs. Minority ■ EX: White vs. Black (US) ■ Minority vs. Majority ■ EX: White vs. Black (South Africa) ■ Structural/Institutional ■ Laws, bureaucracy, etc. can help transition to democracy ■ EX: Britain ■ Authoritarian institutions? ■ What to do with them? What to do with people who were apart of these institutions? ■ NEGOTIATIONS Lecture 16: What Are The Salient Divisions in Society? ○ Multiple Identities ■ Region, nation, religion, class, ideology, race/ethnicity, sex, sexuality, hobbies, family position ○ Why/How do certain identities get activated? ■ Essentialism ■ Identities are so essential to who we are and they are going to inevitably conflict ■ Used to explain international and local conflicts ■ EX: Sunnis and Shiites, Israelis/Palestinians ■ Weakness: Not clear which identity is so essential ■ Often viewed as the weakest explanations for identity conflict → usually only emerges only after a conflict emerges ■ Entrepreneurs ■ Entrepreneurs: politicians, leaders, activists, etc. ■ Exaggerate the tension and make it a lot worse ■ Not essential identities that lead to politicization, but rather entrepreneurs ■ Scapegoating → blaming group for problems 27 ■ EX: Germans/Nazis blamed Jews for economic problems ■ Priming → Don’t explicitly blame them, instead you subtly activate those tensions to divide people and rally support by priming people to think about those divisions ■ More common ■ Racial priming is more divisive ■ Ads/imagery that are associated with race ■ EX: Black people committing a crime or using welfare ■ EX: Willie Horton → Bush SR. released picture of this man to highlight his opponent's weak crime policies ■ EX: 2008 Presidential Campaign → Democrats talking about John McCain’s age ■ Institutions ○ Institutions and Identity Politics ■ Party system ■ Refers to # of active political parties ■ One party system can be divisive because one party is in power and others are oppressed ■ Multiparty system can be divisive because there are specific parties (EX: Hunting and Fishing Party) for specific identities ■ Two party system least likely to be divisive because parties compromise and have to compete for votes among so many groups → diversity ■ Assimilationist vs. Multicultural policies ■ Assimilation: All about limiting minorities cultural rights and religious practices ■ EX: France → gov’t doesn’t support ethnic minorities’ organizations ■ Multicultural: Governments officially recognize and fund minority cultures ■ EX: Netherlands, UK, Canada ○ Immigration Timeline ■ 19th century: slow movement poor to rich ■ EX: Irish and Germans going West ■ Late 19th/early 20th century: Industrial expansion ■ Needed workers → a lot of poor people in Southern/Eastern Europe → moved to America/Western Europe ■ Second half of 20th century: Global immigration ■ US: 1920s → limit on visas, 2% of population during 1890 ■ Way of limiting Southern and Eastern Europeans and other groups (Africans, Middle Easterners, etc.) 28 ■ US: 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act ■ Abolished national origins quotas → established immigration on the basis of skills and family connections ■ Europe: WW2 ■ Important b/c after WWII → lots of labor shortages ■ Lots of men died during WWII ■ Loss of factories ■ Had to look towards immigrants to help rebuild factories/laborers ■ Initially → Europeans ■ Then looked towards colonial subjects ■ Also looked at countries on the border of Europe (Turkey) ○ European Turning Point - 1970s ■ European economic crisis ■ Economic crisis in 1970s made people realize how permanent the new migrant/immigrant population was ■ Blamed immigrants for unemployment ■ Cut of labor agreements with certain countries and some countries deported people ■ Tried to encourage people to leave → didn’t work ■ Immigrants are now permanent ■ If they couldn’t go as workers, they would go as students or illegally ■ People stayed in Europe because they were afraid to leave ■ Family reunification laws ■ Biggest factor that increased migration from outside of Europe ■ When families arrived → not as isolated, live normal lives → more involved in European society ■ Led to more conflicts ○ Muslim Integration in Europe ■ Why is there such a push back against Muslim immigrants ■ Fear of terrorism ■ Cultural conflicts ■ Free speech ■ Rushdie Affair ■ Gay/Women’s Rights ■ EX: Headscarves ■ Pushes Europe’s willingness to be tolerant of intolerance ■ Countervailing Evidence ■ Small percentage of Muslims are terrorists ■ Muslims aren’t very organized politically across Europe ○ Takeaway: Identities are complex and we don’t have one specific identity Lecture 17: National Problems and Subnational Politics ○ A lot of political processes happen at the local level 29 ○ Politics at a subnational level can tell us a lot about which internal challenges a country is facing ○ Federalism ■ Can be a solution for these problems ■ Definition: Delegation of authority on a subnational level ■ EX: US ■ At least two levels of government ■ Exclusive power ■ Constitutional → hard to change ○ Alternative forms ■ Unitary state: All power concentrated at national level ■ EX: UK ■ Confederation: Loose union of independent state ■ EX: Switzerland ○ Cases: Summary ■ USSR/Modern Russia ■ Challenges: Size/diversity of the population ■ Solution: Informal institutions/asymmetric federalism ■ Asymmetric federalism: some regions have more power about decision making, etc. ■ Mexico ■ Challenges: Single party regime to democracy ■ Solution: Democratization initiated ■ Iraq ■ Challenge: ethnic/religious cleavages ■ Solution: ○ USSR ■ Vast territory → need to decentralize authority ■ Centralized community party → federation “on paper” only ■ Diverse territories and identities → some require more autonomy than others → asymmetric federation ■ Fall of USSR → “on paper” Federalism turned real (no party anymore) → some states became their own country ○ Modern Russia ■ Asymmetric nature of federalism still in place ■ 1990s: Weak center, bilateral agreements with the regions ■ Federalism based on constant negotiations ■ Exchanging political loyalty for financial resources from the center ■ 2000s: balance of power shifts in favor of the center ○ Mexico ■ Stable authoritarian regime (1930s-1990s) ■ IRP (Institutional Revolutionary Party) → dominant party until 200 ■ Clientelism ■ Electoral manipulation ■ Informal succession of mechanisms ■ Transition: Multiple opposition gaining power in the regimes 30 ■ IRP still has support in certain regions still ■ 2012: Big return of IRP to national level ○ Iraq ■ Deep religious and ethnic divides → no neat borders ■ 2003 intervention → new constitution → federal state ■ Civil war and constant conflict ■ Right now.. ■ Highly autonomous Kurdistan Regional Government formed ■ ISIS seizing control ■ Major groups ■ Control different types of resources ■ Supported by different external actors ■ Two Arab groups and neighboring countries don’t want Kurds to separate ■ Separation NOT possible ■ Real federalism may be the answer ■ Necessary elements: ■ Government supported by all factions ■ Wide discretion of regional and local authorities ■ Regional representation ■ Rules for income redistribution (including oil revenue) Lecture 18: Weak States & Corruption ○ State functions ■ Monopolize violence ■ Meet h
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