BIOL 151 Quiz: Exam 3 Review

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BIOL 151
Chris Felege

Phylogenetic Tree Archaea Extremophiles, no membrane bound organelles Crenarchaeota Originally found in geothermal sulfur springs Euryarchaeota Methanogens, Halophytes, thermophilic Korarchaeota Hydrothermal environments Thaumarchaeota Chemolithoautotrophic (ammonia, nitrogen, carbon); Likely producer of Vitamin B12 Bacteria No membrane bound organelles Actinobacteria Gram Positive, source of many antibiotics, decompose things, high G+C Bacteriodetes Gram Negative, bacilius (rod shaped), non-spore forming Chlamydiae Gram Negative, ovoid shaped, infect eukaryotes to grow Cyanobacteria Gram Negative, photosynthetic and produce O2 Fimicutes Gram Positive, low G+C, cocci or bacilius Mycoplasma NO cell wall, smallest bacteria Spirocetes Gram Negative, double membrane, corkscrew/spiraled shape α-Proteobacteria Gram Negative, some autotrophic, some metabolize β-Proteobacteria Gram Negative, nitrogen fixation, chemolithotrophic γ-Proteobacteria Gram Negative, huge number of pathogens δ-Proteobacteria Gram Negative, predominantly aerobic ε-Proteobacteria Gram Negative, most live in digestive tract Eukarya Membrane organelles Plants Non-moving (fixed), autotrophic organisms, starch storage in plastids, chlorophyll containing Green Algae Multi- or unicellular, contain chloroplasts, rely on water for reproduction Ulvophyceae Marine microalgae, cell wall of cellulose, division via furrowing, unicellular or filaments Coleocheatophyceae Freshwater, multicellular, sexual/asexual reproduction, plasmodesmata, haploid Charophyceae Stoneworts; freshwater, all land plants descendent of this! Usually unicellular or filaments, division via cell plate formation Nonvascular Land Plants Lacking lignin in cell walls (no vascular tissue), gametophyte-dominant Hepaticophyta Liverworts; no stomata, contain rhizoids, Bryophyta Mosses; unbranched sporophytes Anthocerophyta Hornworts; horn-shaped sporophytes, most have true stomata Seedless Vascular Cell walls contain lignin (vascular tissue exists), Sporophyte-dominant, lacking seeds… Lycophyta Lycophytes, club mosses; highly flammable spores, microphylls (leaves with only 1 vein) Psilotophyta Whisk ferns; no roots – rhizoids, no obvious leaves, homosporous, photosynthetic stems Pteridophyta Ferns; mostly homosporous, spores form on true leaves, no strobilus Equisetophyta Horsetails; true stems, roots and leaves; silica in cell walls, homosporous Gymnosperms Seeds! Seeds either form on the surface of leaves or in cones, “naked seeds” Ginkgophyta Ginko; fan-shaped leaves, dioecious and deciduous, fleshy, plum-like seeds Cycadophyta Cycads; tropical/subtropical, male and female cones @ end of trunk, dioecious, palm-like leaves, 1 crown of leaves/year Cupressophyta Redwoods, et. al.; cones are woody, leathery, or berry-like (juniper); mostly evergreen, needle-like leaves, small, flattened seeds with 2 narrow wings. Pinophyta Pines, et. al.; cones! Needle-like leaves! Male and female cones, evergreen! Monoecious (male/female cones produced separately on the same tree) Gnetophyta Gnetophytes; vessel elements present! Flower-like strobili, double fertilization Angiosperms Seeds! Flowers! Seeds enclosed in an ovary, endosperm in seeds, “enclosed seeds” Anthophyta Flowering plants, sieve tubes, vessel elements, stamens with 2 pairs of pollen sacs, double fertilization. Fungi Chitin in cell walls, heterotrophic – not photosynthetic, spores Ascomycota Sac fungi, reproduction via asci, with 8 gametes Basidiomycota Club fungi, reproduction via club shaped basidia Chytrids Only fungi using alternation of generations, sexual and asexual spores motile w/flagella Glomeromycota AMF, asexual reproduction, require other plant’s roots Microsporidians Spore forming, unicellular, parasitic Zygomycetes Reproduction via yoked hyphae that form a sporangium (zygospores) Animals Multicellular, embryonic development, heterotrophic Protostome Mouth formed first… determinate, spiral cleavage Annelida Segmented worms; segmented, bilateral symmetry, 1-way gut, mobile or sessile, sexual. Arthropoda Bugs, lobster/crab; bilateral symmetry, jointed appendages, compound eyes, chiton exoskeletons, 1-way gut, sexual. Mollusca Shellfish, octopus, squid; bilateral symmetry, mantle, muscular foot, 1-way gut, sexual Nematoda Roundworm; bilateral symmetry, sexual, 1-way gut, pseudocoleom Platyhelmintha Flatworms; unsegmented, bilateral symmetry, 2-way gut, fission or sex, regeneration capable Rotifera Parthogenesis reproduction, suspension feeding, 1-way gut Acoela Turbellarians, no intestines, shed eggs through skin or mouth, eat algae for nutrient producing Porifora Sponges; no true organs/tissues, flagellated cells, spicule skeletal elements, budding or sex, sessile adults, some regeneration capabilities, 2-way gut Ctenophora Comb Jellies; radial or bilateral symmetry, few tissues, swim via cilia, mostly sexual, carnivorous, planktonic larval stage Cnidarians Jellyfish, sea anemones, hydroids; polyp (sessile) and medusa (mobile) forms, radial symmetry, nematocysts – stinging structures for prey capture and defense Deuterostomes Anus develops first… bilateral symmetry, indeterminate, radial cleavage Echinodermata Sea stars, urchins; “spiny skin” only marine, adults have radial symmetry, larvae = bilateral. Sexual or regeneration Chordata Notochord, hollow dorsal nerve, and pharyngeal gill slits at some stage of development. Cepholochordata Subphylum of Chordata, Lancets; Urochordata Subphylum of Chordata, Tunicates; Vertebrata Subphylum of Chordata, class of organisms with vertebrates Actinistia Coelacanths; fossil lobe-finned fishes, Actinopterygii Ray-finned fish (fins have bony/horny spikes and webbed skin), 99% of vertebrates. Myxinoidea Hagfish; eel-shaped slime-porducing fish, have skull but no vertebral column, jawless Petromyzontoidea Lampreys; jawless, toothed funnel-like sucking mouth, some parasitic, some filter feed Dipnoi Lungfish; ability to breathe air, lobed fins, bony skeleton Chondrichthyes Sharks, rays; jawed, paired fins, nares, scales, and a skeleton of cartilage Urodela Salamanders; lizard-like amphibians, can regenerate limbs, tail as larvae and adult Anura Amphibians/Frogs; reptilian, life on land and in water, must return to water to reproduce, start with gills which transform to lungs, tailless. Testudinia Turtles; reptilia, hard shell protecting organs, oviparous, internal fertilization, Lack of holes in temporal region of skull (anapsis) Crocodilia Crocodiles, alligators; order within class of reptilia, predatory, semi-aquatic reptiles Lepidosauria Lizards, snakes; reptilia, overlapping scales Aves Birds; reptilia, feathers, toothless beaked jaw, lay hard-shelled eggs, Mammalia Mammals; amniotes, mammary glands, neocortex (brain region), 3 middle ear bones, hair, nursing young with milk Any eukaryote excluding animals, plants, or fungi Protista Bikonta Two flagellum Unikonta Singular flagellum, or none (include Amoebozoa, Opisthokonta) Alveolata Alveolar sacs present beneath the plasma membrane, may contain rigid material that add distinct texture to cell Amoebozoa Amoeboid organisms with lobose psuedpopds (no mictrotubules) Excavata Heterotrophic with distinct suspension feeding groove and recurrent flagellum Opisthokonta Possess a posterior flagellum at some stage in life cycle Plantae Photosynthetic Rhizaria Amoebae and amoeboflagellates with thinpsuedopods (filopods) Stramenopila 4 heterotrophic, 15 autotroph groups; fucoxanthin main pigment, Fill out the table below Characteristic of Life Description or Explanation Made of cells To be considered “alive” an organism must contain one or more cells (membrane bound unit of structure) Organized An organism must have levels of organization, such as tissues, organs, organ systems, etc. and/or some kind of organization within a cell. Reproduce An organism must be able to reproduce sexually or asexually, and independent of other organisms (which is why viruses are not “alive”) Reproduce using DNA or RNA as a hereditary molecule Metabolism Organisms must be able to acquire and use energy Homeostasis Organisms must be able to maintain a stable internal environment Respond to Stimulus An organism must be able to make changes in response to changes in its environment Grow and Develop An organism must be able to grow in size, mature, and develop using cell division and cell enlargement Adapt Living organisms must adapt to their environment and changes within it Questions: 1) Based on the above table, and Units 1 and 2, why do Biologists often call DNA “the molecule of life”? Biologists call DNA the “molecule of life” because DNA has the ability to code for everything in an organism, and changes to this DNA code creates changes in the organism, and how it lives. DNA is crucial to every aspect of life, and it is a hereditary molecule. Because it is the genetic material of all cellular organisms 2) Based on the above table, why do Biologists often call Evolution “the unifying concept of Biology?” Evolution offers a comprehensive explanation for the pattern of similarities and differences that exist in all living organisms, especially when using the definitions used in class (descent with modification, changes in allele frequencies) Viruses Hypothesis Explanation Pro and Con Escaped Gene Mobile genetic elements are descended from Support: clusters of genes that physically escaped from Against: No current supporting evidence prokaryotic or eukaryotic chromosomes long ago. Degeneration Organisms degenerated into viruses by gradually Support: Evidence that the mitochondria and losing the genes required to synthesize chloroplasts of eukaryotes cells originated in few- ribosomes, ATP, nucleotides, amino acids, and living cells, mimivirus contains some genes other compounds. involved in protein synthesis Against: RNA world-origin Viruses trace their ancestry back to the first Support: ubiquity of the virus, several proteins RNA-based forms of life on Earth commonly found in many viruses do not appear in any cell examined thus far Against: Lysogenic Lytic Unique Form/Function Similarities Unique Form/Function  Host cell bursts at  Viruses are  Host cell lives end of cycle replicated in either  Host cells  Host cell dies genetic material or in incorporate viral  Viruses are their entirety DNA into host DNA replicated and  Viral DNA is assembled replicated, but no new viruses in capsids are formed Question: Based on the above – why are viruses NOT considered part of the phylogenetic tree of life on your first page? Viruses are not considered part of the phylogenetic tree of life for two reasons: 1. Viruses are not considered “alive” because they violate some of the characteristics of life (like cells/organization) 2. Viruses have appeared too many times on the tree of life to find an origin, as well as have too many strains and types to track Structure Form Function Envelope Lipid membrane coating the capsid, uses Cover and protect capsid pieces of host cells Possibly help avoid host immune sys. Capsid Protein shell, can be cylindrical or Protect viral genome, deliver genome to spherical host, interact with host cells Hereditary Molecule NUCLEIC ACIDS: Can be DNA or RNA, Replicating the virus within the host cell single-stranded or double-stranded, + sense or - sense, circular or linear, etc. RNA as hereditary molecule RNA, either double or single stranded, High-error rate of replication means more with + or - sense mutations and harder to kill, replication in cytoplasm DNA as hereditary molecule DNA, double stranded Replication in the nucleus BACTERIA/ARCHEA Characteristic of Life Description or Explanation Specific to Bacteria Cell Types AND Prokaryotic, Unicellular organism, contains peptidoglycan in cell walls, ester bonds link fatty acids Organization – in lipids within cells Reproduction – Contains a tRNA without a modified methionine, unique rRNA Asexual Reproduction Metabolism – Can perform photosynthesis, use Glycolysis Homeostasis Maintain cellular conditions within the membrane Respond to Stimulus Bacteria grow and reproduce in “good” environments, not in “bad” environments Do not respond well to antibiotics – most die Grow and Develop Cell division and enlargement take place Adapt Do not adapt to extreme environments Characteristic of Life Description or Explanation Specific to Archaea Cell Types AND Unicellular organism, lacks peptidoglycan in cell walls, ether bonds connect fatty acids in lipids within Organization – cells Reproduction – Contain an initiator tRNA with an unmodified methionine, unique rRNA, Asexual reproduction Metabolism – Doesn’t perform photosynthesis, able to perform Methanogenesis (produce methane as metabolic by- product), often live in extreme environments Do not use glycolysis pathway, most do not have functional Krebs Cycle Homeostasis Maintain cellular conditions within the membrane Respond to Stimulus Bacteria grow and reproduce in “good” environments, not in “bad” environments Do not respond to antibiotics – some unaffected Grow and Develop Cell division and enlargement take place Adapt Incredibly adaptable to extreme environments Metabolism Autotroph Heterotroph Phototrophic Get energy from light, undergo Use light for energy source, photosynthesis cannot use carbon as sole carbon source Form and Function Ex: Energy = Light, C-C = Organic Molecules Chemoorganotrophic Get energy from oxidizing the chemical Unable to fix carbon to form bonds in organic molecules, able to fix their own organic compunds, carbon Form and Function Ex: Energy = Oxidize Chemical Bonds in Organic Molecules Chemolithotroph Get energy from oxidizing chemical Unable to fix carbon to form bonds in inorganic molecules, able to fix inorganic compounds carbon Form and Function Ex: Energy = Oxidize Chemical Bonds
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