BIOL 151 Final: Chapter 11 notes for final exam

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BIOL 151
Chris Felege

GreenAlgae and Plants Introduction • The green plants consist of the green algae and land plants • Plants are eaten by herbivores, which are eaten by carnivores, or meat eaters • Some organisms are omnivores -those that eat both plants and animals • Artificial Selection for plants with certain properties has led to dramatic changes in plant characteristics • Based on morphology, the major phyla of plants are grouped into three categories: 1. Nonvascular Plants (bryophytes) i. Lack vascular tissue 1. Specialized groups of cells that conduct water or dissolved nutrients throughout the plant body 2. Seedless Vascular Plants i. Have well-developed vascular tissue ii. Do not make seeds iii. Make microscopic spores for reproduction iv. Includes ferns 3. Seed plants i. Have vascular tissue ii. Make seeds 1. Seeds consist of an embryo and a store of nutritive tissue, surrounded by a tough protective layer iii. Include the angiosperms, or flowering plants • Most of the earliest plant fossils are microscopic • These early plant fossils have reproductive cells called spores and sheets of a waxy coating called a cuticle • Gymnosperms are prominent in the fossil record from 288mya to 145mya • Five major groups of gymnosperms are living today: 1. Ginkgophyta (ginkgoes) 2. Cycadophyta (cycads) 3. Cucpressophyta (redwoods, junipers, and yews) 4. Pinophyta (pines, spruces, and firs) 5. Gnetophyta (gnetophytes) • Land plants are monophyletic • The nonvascular plants are the earliest-branching group among land plants • The nonvascular plants are paraphyletic • The seedless vascular plants are paraphyletic, but the vascular plants as a whole are monophyletic • The seed plants - gymnosperms plus angiosperms- are monophyletic • The gymnosperms and angiosperms are monophyletic groups • Cuticle is a watertight sealant that covers the aboveground parts of the plant and gives
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