BIOL 151 Final: Chapter 12 notes for final exam

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BIOL 151
Chris Felege

Fungi Introduction • Fungi comprise a diverse group of (mostly) multicellular eukaryotes • Fungi feed by absorbing nutrients from living or dead organisms ◦ Those that feed on dead organisms are the world's most important decomposers • Some fungi are parasites ◦ Absorb nutrients from their hosts, lowering the hosts' fitness • Most fungi that live in association with other organisms benefit their hosts and thus are mutualists • The roots of most land plants are colonized by mutualistic fungi • Fungi living in the shoots of some plants help repel herbivores by producing toxic compounds • Some insects grow gardens of fungi, which they cultivate and feed upon • Fungi can be thought of as the master traders and recyclers in terrestrial ecosystems • Fungi profoundly influence productivity and biodiversity • Fungi and land plants often have a symbiotic relationship • Several types of symbiosis are found: ◦ Mutualism ◦ Parasitism ◦ Commensalism • The major destructive impact of fungi on people is through the food supply • Saprophytes are fungi that make their living by digesting dead plant material • The Carbon cycle on land has two basic components: ◦ The fixation of carbon by land plants ◦ The release of carbon dioxide from plants, animals, and fungi as the result of cellular respiration • Two growth forms exist: 1. Single-celled forms - yeasts 2. Multicellular, filamentous forms - mycelia • Some species adopt both forms • All mycelia are dynamic • The long, narrow, frequently branching filaments that make up a mycelium are called hyphae • Each filament is separated into cell by cross-walls called septa • Some fungi are coenocytic, meaning they lack septa entirely • Sexually reproducing fungi have four types of distinctive reproductive structures: 1. Swimming gametes and spores i. Both the sexually produced gametes and the asexually produced spores in the chytrids have flagella ii. These are the only known motile fungal cells 2. Zygosporangia i. Zygomycetes have distinctive spore-producing structures ii. Zygosporangia are formed from the fusion of cells from joined-together haploid hyphae from two individuals 3. Basidia i. Basidiomycetes or "club-fungi" form basidia, specialized club-like cells at the ends of hyphae ii. Each basidium produces four spores 4. Asci i. Ascomycetes, or "sac fungi" form asci, reproductive sac-like cells at the ends of hy
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