BIOL 151 Final: Chapter 13 notes for final exams

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BIOL 151
Chris Felege

Animals Introduction • Animals are eukaryotes that share key traits: 1. Multicellularity, with cells that i. Lack cell walls ii. Have extensive extracellular matrix 2. Heterotrophy i. They obtain necessary carbon compounds from other organisms ii. Most ingest their food rather than absorbing it 3. Motility i. They move under their own power at some point in their life cycle • All animals except sponges also have 1. Nerve cells called neurons that transmit electrical signals to other cells 2. Muscle cells that can change the shape of the body by contracting • Animals are similar to multicellular fungi in that ◦ They are both multicellular heterotrophs ◦ They both digest and absorb nutrients • However, animals are the only multicellular heterotrophs on the tree of life that ingest their food before digesting it • In most animals, neurons connect to each other, forming a nervous system ◦ Some neurons connect to muscle cells ◦ Muscles and neurons are adaptations that allow a large, multicellular body to move efficiently • Animals are the largest predators, herbivores, and detritivores on Earth ◦ They are the key consumers in virtually every ecosystem • Biologists who study animal evolution consider three types of data: 1. Fossils 2. Comparative morphology 3. Comparative genomics • Fossils ◦ The fossil record is inconsistent, but it is the only direct evidence of • Animal morphology • Where they lived • When they existed • Comparative Morphology ◦ Distinguishes between shared characteristics and synapomorphies ◦ These data can be used to • Define the fundamental agriculture, or body plan, of each lineage • Infer which characteristic arose first • Infer which animal groups are more closely related • Comparative Genomics ◦ Pro
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