[SOC 110] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (14 pages long)

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7 Feb 2017
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University of North Dakota
SOC 110
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Sociology: the systematic study of the relationship between the individual and society and of the
consequences of difference.
Sociological Imagination: our recognition of the interdependent relationship between who we are as
individuals and the social forces that shape our lives.
Private Troubles: are problems we face in our immediate relationships with particular individuals in our
personal lives. Exclamation is for such travels and particular to the individuals involved. For example you
lose your job because you disobeyed your boss.
Public issues: Are problems we face as a consequence of the positions we occupy within the larger social
structure. They are social problems. For example if lots of people in the same position lose their jobs.
Our position relative to others shapes are axis to re-sources and influences the options available to us. Place
matters. As individuals, we do have the power to make our own choices, but we cannot separate our
individual preferences from the influence of parents, teachers, friends, co-workers etc.. Whose decisions
enable or constrain opportunities for us.
Our social class position for example shapes our access to material resources. Social class, gender, and race
are positional categories because of their significance in our lives.
78Cents for women per 1 dollar for man
median wealth for white households was 13 times greater than hispanic households.
Dependency on others for simple things. e.g. hamburger
1
4 Components of Defining Sociology
1. Systematic Study: sociologists collect empirical data through systematic research, relying on such data
means that sociologists draw their conclusions about society based on experiences or observations.
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Research involves quantitative e.g. surveys and qualitative e.g. participant observation approaches Data
collection.
2. The individual: agency, which is the freedom individuals have to choose and to act. For example not to
appear traffic signals.
3. Society: consists of persistent patterns and relationships and social networks with them which we
operate. The social structure it provides is analogous to a building. The layout of the building both in
carriages and discourages different activities in different rooms. And most of the essential operations of
the building are mostly invisible to us. Institutions: the term sociologists used to describe some of the
major components of the social structure, including family, economy, education, government, and
religion shapes what is expected of us.
4. The consequences of difference: social inequality a condition in which members of society have
differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power.
Science refers to the body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation.
Social science: the study of the social features of humans and the ways in which they interact and change.
Four example, sociology, economics, history, psychology.
Sociologists would analyse the economic downturn of 2008 as a public issue. They would gather data about
how this crisis averted people differently depending on social positions the occupied. Four example the
persons geographic location, age, gender, race and Nissley all influence his or her likelihood of experiencing
unemployment.
The difference between common sense and sociology is that common sense relies on commonly held beliefs
rather than on systematic analysis of facts.
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