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EXP3412 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Classical Conditioning, Interstimulus Interval, Contiguity


Department
Experimental Psychology
Course Code
EXP3412
Professor
Paul A.Thoreck
Study Guide
Midterm

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3 : Pavlovian Conditioning
Key to Review Questions
1. Define the following terms:
Backward conditioning: A Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which the US precedes the
CS.
Blocking: Failure of a stimulus to become a CS when it is part of a compound stimulus that
includes an effective CS. The effective CS blocks the formation of another CS.
Classical conditioning: A synonym for Pavlovian conditioning; the procedure of pairing a
neutral stimulus with a US.
Compensatory response theory: A variation of preparatory response theory that suggests the
CR prepares the organism for the US by compensating for its effects.
Compound stimulus: Two or more stimuli presented simultaneously, often as a CS.
Conditional reflex: A reflex acquired through Pavlovian conditioning and consisting of a CS
and a CR.
Conditional response: The response part of a conditional reflex; the response elicited by a
CS.
Conditional stimulus: The stimulus part of a conditional reflex; the stimulus that elicits a CR.
Contiguity: Nearness of events in time (temporal contiguity) or space (spatial contiguity).
Contingency: A dependency between events. An event may be stimulus-contingent
(dependent on the appearance of a stimulus) or behavior-contingent (dependent on the
appearance of a behavior).
Delay conditioning: A Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which the CS starts before, and
then overlaps with, the US.
Extinction: In Pavlovian conditioning, the procedure of repeatedly presenting the CS without
the US.
Higher-order conditioning: A variation of Pavlovian conditioning in which a neutral stimulus is
paired, not with a US, but with a well-established CS.
Inter-stimulus interval: The interval between the CS and US.
Inter-trial interval: The interval between the trials of a discrete trials procedure.
Latent inhibition: In Pavlovian conditioning, the failure of a CR to appear as a result of prior
presentation of the CS in the absence of the US.
Overshadowing: Failure of a stimulus that is part of a compound stimulus to become a CS.
The stimulus is said to be overshadowed by the stimulus that does become a CS.
Pavlovian conditioning: Any of four procedures in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a
stimulus that elicits a reflex.
Preparatory response theory: This is the idea that the CR prepares the organism for the
appearance of the US.
Pseudoconditioning: The tendency of a neutral stimulus to elicit a CR when presented after a
US has elicited a reflex response.
Rescorla-Wagner model: A theory of conditioning that describes the acquisition of the CR
with the equation, Vn = c ( Vn 1).
Sensory preconditioning: A procedure in which two neutral stimuli are paired, after which one
is repeatedly paired with a US. If the other stimulus is then presented alone, it may elicit a CR
even though it was never paired with the US.
Simultaneous conditioning: A Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which the CS and US
occur together in time.
1
PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING
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