Study Guides (400,000)
US (230,000)
UNF (400)
PSY (10)
Study Guide

[PSY2012] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (26 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY2012
Professor
Minor Chamblin
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 26 pages of the document.
UNF
PSY2012
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Introduction to Psychology PSY2012
Objectives: Chapter 4
Sensation and Perception
NOTE: Our coverage of this chapter will be limited to:
Edition 3 pp. 126-132, pp. 151-157
Edition 2 pp. 124-130, pp. 139-146
Discuss how our perceptions are directed and limited by selective attention.
- Selective attention allows your cognitive processes to take in selective
aspects of your world
- Limited capacity
- A concentration of mental activity
Contrast sensation and perception
- Sensation is the detection of energy by sense organs which send information
to the brain; perception is the interpretation of raw sensory inputs
Explain the difference between bottom-up and top-down processing.
- Bottom-up processing: sensory detection and encoding; construction of whole
from parts; taking details
- Top-down processing: using knowledge from experiences and events to
interpret information
Distinguish between an absolute threshold and a just noticeable difference
threshold. What does Weber’s law say about just noticeable difference
thresholds?
- Absolute threshold: lowest level of a stimulus needed for the nervous system
to detect a change 50% of the time
- Just noticeable difference: the smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus
that we can detect Ex. Adding 1 lbs. vs. 50 lbs. to a 200 lbs. ball
- Weber’s Law: there is a constant proportional relationship between the JND
and original stimulus intensity; Two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum
percentage, to be perceived as different
How does signal detection theory explain the likelihood of perceiving a
stimulus? In particular, explain the signal-to-noise ratio and identify
psychological factors that might influence this ratio.
- Predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal)
amid background stimulation (noise)
- Assumes that there is no single absolute threshold
- Detection depends on each person’s: experience, expectations, motivation,
and level of fatigue
- It becomes harder to detect a signal as background noise increases
Define sensory adaptation and explain why it is functional.
- activation is greatest when a stimulus is first detected
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Introduction to Psychology PSY2012
- sensitivity diminishes as a consequence of constant stimulation
- Function: allows us to focus on other sensory information in our environment
(benefit)
Identify examples of cross-modal processing and describe what these
interactions tell us about human information processing.
- Sensory info in one sense affects how you perceive sensory info in another
sense Ex. Smell and taste
- McGurk Effect
- Not a 100% reflection of what is there
Define parallel processing and, as one important application, discuss its role in
visual information processing.
- The ability to attend to many sense modalities simultaneously
- The brain engaging in multiple subtasks at the same time
- Can happen between sight alone, or among sight, sound, and taste at the
same time
- Putting together different information at one-time Ex. Hearing what someone
sounds like, doesn’t change how they look
Define perceptual set and explain why the same stimulus can evoke different
perceptions in different contexts.
- Set formed when expectations influence perceptions
- Expectation of a sound/image that effects how you see it/hear it
Explain how perceptual constancies help us to organize our sensations into
meaningful perceptions.
- Perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent shape, size, and color)
even as illumination and retinal images change
- The color of something in light vs. in dark will be the same color but we
perceive it as darker
- Allows us to flexibly navigate our world and rely on object recognition at the
same time
Describe Gestalt psychology’s contribution to our understanding of perception
and be able to explain Gestalt principles.
- Gestalt = Form
- We perceive objects as wholes within their overall context
- Closure: when partial visual information is present; our brains fill in what’s
missing
- Proximity: objects physically close to each other tend to be perceived as
unified wholes
- Similarity: All things being equal, we see similar objects as comprising a
whole, much more so than dissimilar objects
- Continuity: we still perceive objects as wholes, even if other objects block part
of them
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version