[POLS 100] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (31 pages long)

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7 Feb 2017
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POLS 100
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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1
Constitution Lecture
1. Abolish Checks and Balances
a. Legacy of Checks and Balances
i. Gridlock
ii. Stalemate
iii. No accountability
iv. No coordination
v. Little gets accomplished
vi. Status Quo often Wins
vii. Necessary change is impossible
viii. Too Many Veto Points
ix. Government is slow to respond
x. Who is in charge?
b. There are other possibilities
i. Example: parliamentary system like the UK
1. Power is concentrated in something called the government
2. The Cabinet and the Prime Minister are part of the parliament which
is in essence a single house
3. The leader of the country is elected by parliament and is more
powerful than our president
4. Responsibility is clear
2. Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists
a. Why did the Federalists mostly win at the Constitutional Convention?
i. Key anti-federalists stayed away (enry smelt a rat, Jefferson was in
France)
ii. Anti-federalists didn’t know the Articles in their entirety were threatened
iii. Shays Rebellion
iv. George Washington was persuaded to preside, lending legitimacy to the
convention
v. James Madison seized control of the convention
1. Producing the well-developed and clearly Federalist Virginia Plan
vi. The Federalists were richer, better-known, and better-organizes
b. Two most famous attendees at the Convention did not make significant substantive
contributions
i. Ben Franklin & George Washington
c. Two most active at Constitutional Convention
i. James Wilson & Gouverneur Morris
3. Organization of the Constitution
a. Only about 6 pages total (4,400 words)
b. Famous preamble: We the people..
c. Then  Articles of widely varying lengths; longer Articles are divided into sections
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2
d. Article 1: Congress (½ of the Constitution), 10 Sections
i. Section 1: Introduction
ii. Section 2: The House of Representatives
iii. Section 3: The Senate
iv. Section 8: Powers of Congress (departure from the Articles)
1. Lay and collect taxes
2. Regulate commerce among the several states
3. Coin money
4. Necessary & Proper Clause
a. Enumerated powers → explicitly stated powers
b. )mplied powers → Necessary & Proper Clause
v. Section 9: Limitations on the powers of Congress
1. Emoluments Clause → Trump (otels pose controversy
vi. Section 10: Limitations on the powers of states (also a departure from the
Articles)
1. No treaties with other countries
2. No coining of currency
3. No regulation of trade (tariffs, imposts, etc)
e. Article 2: The Presidency (departure from the Articles)
i. Section 1: Electing the President (the Electoral College)
ii. Section 2: Powers of the President
iii. Section 4: Impeachment
f. Article 3: The Courts
g. Article 4: Relations of the States to each other
h. Article 5: Amending the Constitution
i. Article : Miscellaneous assume debt; oath of office; Constitution is the Supreme
Law of the Land-an important departure from the Articles of Confederation)
j. Article 7: Ratification of the Constitution
i. Takes just 9 states
ii. Almost certainly illegal
1. The Articles of Confederation were still in place;  men just can’t
sit around and say we don’t believe in this; it’s illegal
k. Amendments →  Total
i. First 10 are known as the Bill of Rights
1. The Anti-Federalists demanded this as a condition for supporting
ratification and Madison went along
2. They were passed as a group in 1791 and are often viewed as
basically part of the original Constitution
ii. So just  since, in about  years there’s about one amendment every 13
years
iii. We have not amended the Constitution since 1992
4. Ratification was not at all assured
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