[PSYC 181] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (109 pages long!)

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7 Feb 2017
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PSYC 181
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Psych chapter five
States of consciousness
Consciousness: moment to moment awareness of our environment and ourselves
-includes thoughts feelings and perceptions and other mental processes
-selective attention focuses conscious awareness on some things and excludes other, like zoning out while
driving
Levels of consciousness: variations in the degree to which one is aware of mental events
Ex: normal ads vs subliminal messages (may affect behavior without conscious awareness
States of consciousness: variations in quality/pattern/nature of mental activity available to awareness
-normal waking consciousness- following commands, perceive time places events as real meaningful and
familiar
-altered states of consciousness
--- fatigue, sensory overload, solitary confinement, hypnosis, drugs, dreaming
levels of consciousness, we are able to flow through the different states of consciousness
(ex: day dreaming in class)
4 characteristics of consciousness
1. Subjective and private- no one else can know your experiences
2. Self-reflective, central to sense of self- aware of our own consciousness
(ex: reflect on what we feel, thinking and see) some animals my not be able to self reflect like we
can.
3. Dynamic (ever-changing)-drift in and out of various states
4. Related to selective attention-can focus on some things, exclude others
3 ways to measure consciousness
1. Self report- desie thoughts/ feeligs deep isight, ut aot e eified ot ojetie
2. Physiological measures- EEG, fMRI-relating bodily states and mental process. Tells us a correlation,
we must infer mental states
3. Behavioral measures-ogue test, self eogitio a e doe ith aials We ust ife
mental states
Rouge test- but red paint on the animal and put them in front of the mirror and see if it touches the
mirror or itself (aware that the reflection is the self)
Theories about levels of consciousness
Feud’s pshodai pespetie
a. Conscious- thoughts perceptions and other mental events of which we are currently aware
b. Preconscious- mental events not currently in awareness but can be easily recalled ( or focused on)
c. Unconscious- cannot be brought into the conscious mind under ordinary circumstances. (Repressed
memories, unacceptable urges).
Recent psychodynamics
emotion unconscious: suggests that motivation and emotion often operate at the unconscious level
to influence our behavior. Could be influenced by unconscious perceptions of the environment
(subliminal processing)
Cognitive levels of consciousness
Cognitive perspective: Unconscious and conscious work together (complementary ways of processing info)
a. controlled processing- conscious thought
b. automatic processing-unconscious
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Controlled processing-effortful, voluntary
Automatic processing- effotless etal atiit
faster, frees you up to think about other things forcing conscious thought can actually throw us
off… … dividing attention has limits though (texting and driving)
in some cases, automatic- better decisions can only consciously focus on a few pieces of info,
unconscious processing seems limitless.
Vegetative states: vegetative state=not a comma. Vegetative state, eyes open vaguely awake. No purposeful
movement or behavior in response to external stimuli. Cannot follow commands
Nothing to indicate that they have a sense of where they are, who they are, or what is happening to
them.
They did an fMRI on a vegetative patient, showed pictures of her family and she responded normally
on the scan.
Found that 1 in 5 egetatie patients were fully conscious they could follow instructions!!
We can use this to communicate with the patients and the patient knows something about who they
are
Self-awareness=consciousness
Circadian Rhythms
What are circadian rhythms?
How do these rhythms relate to being an early bird or a night owl?
How does the brain regulate circadian rhythms?
What are free-running circadian rhythms?
How do SAD, jet lag, or shift-work disrupt these rhythms?
Ho can e treat these disruptions
-24 hour cycles in physiological functions: blood pressure temp, urine production biological clock (bed vs
awake)
-Physiological cycles affect mental functioning
*causes a shift between sleeping and waking states
*24 hour cycles in psychological functions (alertness short term memory)
Circadian variation in body temperature
Peak in the afternoon, lowest in the middle of the day
Sleepy as the temp drops awake as it rises
Suggest that people are primed to fall asleep most easily at a certain time of day
What causes circadian rhythms
Biology: suprachiasmatic Nuclei
Found in hypothalamus- brains clock
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