PSYC 287- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 32 pages long!)

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30 Nov 2017
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PSYC 287
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter1:TheStudyofthePerson
● GordonAllport“FatherofPersonalityPsych”
○ “Theoutstandingcharacteristicofmanishisindividuality.Therewasnevera
personjustlikehim,andthereneverwillbeagain.”
● Whatispersonality?
○ Howdifferenthe/sheisfromothers
○ Howhe/shebehavesinthedifferentsituations
○ Boththesituationandthepersoninfluencebehavior
Consistentbehaviorpatternsandintrapersonalprocessesoriginatingwithinthe
individual
■ toanextent,individualbehaviorisconsistentacrosstimeandsituations
■ emotional,motivational,andcognitiveprocessesthatinfluence
individual’sfeelingsandactions
● Howdowestudypersonality?
○ Psychologicaltriad:thecombinationofhowpeoplethink,feel,andbehave
● WhatdoPersonalityPsychologistsStudy?
○ Psychologicaltriad
○ overlapwithclinicalpsychology
■ bothattempttounderstandthewholeperson
■ normalvs.extremepatternsofpersonality
● AdvantagesandDisadvantagesofPersonalityPsych
○ Goalistoaccountforthewholepersonandreallifeconcerns
■ advantage:inclusive,interesting,andimportant
● “Ifyoudescribealandscape,oraseascape,oracityscape,
alwaysbesuretoincludeandhumanfiguresomewhereinthe
scene.Why?Becausereadersarehumanbeings,mostly
interestedinhumanbeings.”KurtVonnegut
● “Greatstrengthsareusuallygreatweaknesses,andsurprisingly
oftentheoppositeistrueaswell.”Funder’sFirstLaw(pg.10)
● Alsoseeninindividuals
○ whatissomethingyoureallylikeaboutyourbestfriend?
Doesthissamecharacteristicevercauseproblems?
■ HaiLeeisopenmindedbutheropenmindedness
makesherrudesometimes.
■ disadvantage:overinclusiveorunfocusedresearch
○ Howdoyoucomparetwowholepeople?
■ Considerindividualdifferences
● advantage:emphasizeindividualdifferences(whereasotherareas
ofpsychtreatallpeopleasiftheywerethesame)
○ sensitivityandrespectforindividualdifferences
● disadvantage:pigeonholing
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○ classifyingpeoplebasedonstereotypesorfocusingon
onethingtoomuch
● Whatarethegoalsofpersonalitypsych?
○ Basicapproachestopersonality:
■ traitapproach:peoplelieonacontinuumofpersonalitycharacteristics
■ biologicalapproach:understandthemindintermsofthebody
■ psychoanalyticapproach:primaryconcerniswiththeunconsciousmind
andinternalmentalconflict
■ phenomenological(humanistic)approach:focusonconsciousexperience
oftheworld
● humanisticpsych:howconsciousawarenessproducesuniquely
humanattributes
● crossculturalpsych:howtheexperienceofrealityvariesacross
cultures
■ learningapproach:howbehaviorchangesasaresultofrewards,
punishments,andlifeexperiences
○ Basicapproaches:competitorsorcomplements?
■ notincompetitionwitheachother
■ theycomplementeachotherwhilecoveringseveraldifferentapproaches
individually
■ OneBigTheory
● it’sdifficulttodoeverythingwell
● somethingthatdoesonethingwellcan’tdoeverythingefficiently
● EX:cellphones
○ Whatmakessomepeopleaggressive?
■ traitapproachesexplanation:
● focusesonindividualdifferencesandthestabilityofaggressive
behavior
○ aggressivechildrenaremostlikelytobecomeaggressive
adults
■ biological:
● geneticpredispositiontowardsaggression
● EvolutionaryTheory
■ psychoanalytic:
● peoplepossessanunconsciousdesiretoselfdestruct
○ selfdestructiveimpulsesareexpressedagainstothersin
theformofaggression
■ humanistic:
● peoplearebasicallygood
● aggressionariseswhenourbasicneedsaren’tmet
■ learning:
● peoplelearntobeaggressive
● aggressivebehaviorthatisrewardedwillberepeated
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