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Midterm

PSY 374 Midterm: PSY 347-002 Exam #3 Study Guide (Part 1 - Chapter 9)

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 374
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allenbutt

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EXAM #3 STUDY GUIDE (Part 1) Chapter 9: Drug Abuse and Addiction Addiction: Addiction is complex, and a precise definition is difficult. It can include: Physical dependence: abstinence leads to highly unpleasant withdrawal symptoms that motivate the person to return to drug use Addictive behavior: the addict is driven by drug craving – a strong urge to take the drug Individuals remain addicted for long periods of time, and drug-free periods (remissions) are often followed by relapses in which drug use recurs (despite negative consequences) The latest American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) DSM-5 defines addiction as substance use disorder:  The individual has manifested a maladaptive pattern of substance use for at least 12 months that has led to significant impairment or distress, by clinical standards.  The mere use of a drug does not constitute a substance use disorder; drug use must be maladaptive (causing harm to the user) to qualify as a disorder Factors contributing to the addictive potential of a drug:  Route of Administration  Speed of Onset  Duration of Action  Fast onset is associated with shorter duration of action and is more likely to produce addiction.  Oral or transdermal administration results in relatively slow absorption of the drug  Intravenous (IV) injection or inhalation/ smoking yields rapid drug entry into the brain and fast onset of drug action, and produce the strongest euphoric effects as a result of rapid drug delivery to the brain  Repeated exposure to rapid delivery may produce long-term neurobiological changes contributing to the development of addiction The Role of Associative Learning in Drug Addiction Abused drugs act as positive reinforcers; consuming the drug strengthens the probability of repeating whatever preceding behavior was performed. Drug reward refers to the positive experience associated with the drug. Substances that are strong reinforcers when taken intravenously or inhaled have strong abuse potential: cocaine, heroin, amphetamine, and methamphetamine. Animal models of drug addiction  Drug reinforcement is studied by investigating how animals self-administer the drug.  Relapse is modeled in self-administration studies by forcing abstinence, then reintroducing stimuli known to provoke renewed responding: 1. Delivering a small dose (drug priming). 2. Subjecting animal to stress. 3. Exposing animal to environmental cues (conditioned stimuli) previously paired with drug delivery.  Self-administration of a drug by research animals provides a measure of addictiveness of drugs  Electrical self-stimulation of the brain’s reward circuit on performing an operant response; the threshold is reduced when animals have been treated acutely with drugs of abuse.  Place conditioning: animal associates one compartment with rewarding effect of a drug. Withdrawal / Abstinence  Abstinence syndrome - Attempts at abstinence lead to highly unpleasant withdrawal symptoms, which motivates the user to take the drug again  “Impulsive” stage of drug use – primary motivation is the substance’s positive reinforcing effects)  ”Compulsive” stage of drug use – primary motivation is the negative reinforcement obtained by relief from drug withdrawal  The withdrawal response can become classically conditioned to the stimuli associated with the environments in which withdrawal occurs; Withdrawal symptoms, such as craving, can then be triggered by exposure to the conditioned stimuli The Role of Genetics, Personality Traits, and Mental Health  Genetic variation may also contribute to vulnerability to addiction; individuals who carry specific alleles of genes are at increased risk of developing substance abuse disorders.  In alcoholism and tobacco addiction, susceptibility genes include those coding for enzymes involved in alcohol or nicotine metabolism.  Receptors for dopamine (in the case of alcoholism) or acetylcholine (for nicotine) have also been implicated.  Psychosocial variables also contribute to addiction risk: Stress and the ability of the person to cope with stress, treatment often includes learning new coping skills.  Anxiety, mood, or personality disorders; co-occurrence with addiction is called comorbidity. Self-medication hypothesis: Stressful life events could trigger anxiety an
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