[CRJ 104] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 60 pages long Study Guide!

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University of Nevada - Reno
CRJ 104
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Criminal Justice
Introduction
4,474 laws in the state of Nevada
10.2 million Part 1 crimes reported to the FBI each year in the U.S.
About $228 billion spent annually that supports criminal justice in federal, state, and
local governments and employs approximately 2.5 million people
90% of criminals are male
Crime conduct that violates criminal law for which there is no legally accepted
justification or excuse
o Nature of crime constantly evolving
Individual rights advocates seeks to protect personal freedoms within the process of
criminal justice
Public order advocates under specific circumstances, interests of society should take
precedence over individual rights
Justice principle of fairness; the ideal of moral equity
o Social justice embraces all aspects of civilized life and is linked to fundamental
notions of fairness and cultural beliefs of right and wrong
o Civil justice deals with fairness in relationships between citizens, government
agencies, and business in private matters
o Criminal justice concern for violations of the criminal law
Justice ideal ultimate goal of criminal justice and of the daily practices
and challenges that characterize the criminal justice system
Includes the penal law (criminal law) and law of criminal procedures
Struggle for balance Individual rights vs. Public order
Three Major Components to Criminal Justice: Cops, Courts, Corrections
Foundations of Criminal Justice: Legal and Historical Bases
Richard Allen Davis committed many violent felonies
o Released on parole and killed Polly Klaas (1993)
o CA wanted to prevent this situation from recurring
Three-Strikes Law
o Crime control strategy whereby an offender who commits three or more violent
offenses will be sentenced to a lengthy term in prison, usually 25 years to life
o Proponents predicted curbed crime and protection for society
o Opponents argued defendants would demand trials (refuse plea bargains) and
prison populations would explode
o Proved unfair
Third offense could result in a life sentence from low-level felony
convictions (passing a bad check, stealing gloves from a store)
Prisoners added to prison system in one decade would cost an additional
$8.1 billion from taxpayers
Three-strike inmates served 143,439 more years when their third offense
was nonviolent
o November 2012 CA softened law
Imposing life sentence when third felony offense was serious or violent
Authorized courts to resentence those that had low-level third offenses
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Provide redress to mentally ill inmates (40% of inmates under third-strikes
law)
The Consensus-Versus-Conflict Debate
Consensus Model assumes cooperation among all components of the system toward
a common goal
o John Locke believed people are created by God to have free will and have
rights to life, liberty, and property
People give up rights to protect themselves and receive protection in
return
Governments give protection and receive loyalty and obedience in
return
Believed chief purpose of government was protection of property
o Thomas Hobbes believed all people are irrational and selfish
Believed in individual rights and representative governments
Conflict Model assumes all components are self-serving and compete for limited
resources
o Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed that “Man is born free, but everywhere he is
in chains”
Crime Control and Due Process: Do Ends Justify Means?
Herbert Packer
created two models of the criminal justice process (1968)
o Due Process Model criminal defendants should be presumed innocent, courts
must protect suspects’ rights, and there must be some limits placed on police
powers
Due process no deprivation of life, liberty, or property to any person
without going through court (14th Amendment)
Views criminal justice systems as an obstacle course
Goal is to protect the rights of defenders
Emphasizes the value of reliability
Has formal, adversarial (advocates represent their parties) procedures
Focuses on legal guilt
o Crime Control Model emphasizes law and order and argues that every effort
must be made to suppress crime, and to try, convict, and incarcerate offenders
Views criminal justice systems as an assembly line
Goal is to control crime
Emphasizes the values of efficiency, speed, and finality
Has informal screening by police and prosecutors
Focuses on factual guilt
Conservative vs. Liberal Viewpoints
o Conservatives favor the Crime Control Model
Believe in stricter enforcement of the law through the expansion of police
forces and enactment of laws that require swift and certain punishment of
criminals
Every effort must be made to reduce crime
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