[CRJ 106] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (26 pages long)

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29 Mar 2017
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University of Nevada - Reno
CRJ 106
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Criminal Justice 106 (Dr. Jennifer Lanterman)
Yellow = Important Concepts Green = People Blue = Important Works/Books
1/25/2017 Lecture (based off Chapter 1): Corrections: The Essentials
Corrections v. Penology
Corrections functions carried out by government and private agencies related to
punishment, treatment, supervision, and management of those accused or convicted of
crime
o For people who have violated the law
o To hold these people responsible for the crime
o The punishment held as a response for the crime
Penology study of the processes and institutions involved in the punishment and
prevention of crime
o The study of the corrections process
o Research of the processes
Corrections is the process; penology is the study of the process
A sound theory is developed by observing some sort of phenomenon (the research
question)
o Testing out the theory through experimentation
o What is different with the contenders (variables)?
o What makes the contenders so different among each other?
o This helps redevelop the theory and make it more accurate
Approaches to Human Behavior
Nature human personalities and behavior are largely innate
o Humans come into the world the way they are going to be
We are hard-wired to act a certain way and develop specific characteristics
o Humans are fundamentally self-centered, which is necessary for survival
We need to learn how to put the focus off ourselves and then put it on
others
o Species evolves in a manner to address evolutionary challenges
“Aggressiveness” first, “empathy” later
o Source of criminality is internal to the individual
“Born a criminal”
The individual themselves are responsible for committing any crime
Nurture human nature and behavior are socially constructed
o Human mind is a “blank slate”
o Experiences shape personalities and behavior
Society influences us positively or negatively
o Source of criminality is external to the individual
Environment has had negative effect on the individual
Society is to blame for the individual committing any crime
o Nurture side of the argument
Classical School of Criminology
Cesare Beccaria wrote On Crimes and Punishment
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o Argued for many rights Americans have today
o Punishment: Proportional, without reference to social status, abolition of the death
penalty
o Swift and certain punishment
o Punishments should be documented
o Discretion of judges severely limited
The Enlightenment allowed people to start questioning EVERYTHING
Jeremy Bentham wrote Principles of Morals and Legislation
o Principle of utility (Utilitarian Principle)
o Greatest happiness for greatest number of people
o Legislation should maximize pleasure and minimize pain of the largest number in
society
Human motivation
o Legislators must understand if they are to legislate under the principle of utility
o Enlightenment concept of human nature
Hedonistic
Rational
Endowed with free will
Positivist School of Criminology
Need for empirical science from which conclusions can be drawn
All human actions have causes
o Predisposing factors something inherited or a characteristic an individual has
that may lead to problems (such as being easily angered)
o Precipitating factors something from the environment that triggers the problem
(such as alcohol influencing an individual’s anger to worsen)
Characteristics and circumstances of the individual are important in determining behavior
Factors determine whether behavior is voluntary or involuntary
o Impacts legal responsibility
o Society influences the individual
Hard form of determinism => More nuanced understanding of factors
Raffaele Garofalo believed that human actions evoked by the circumstances of society
are beyond human control
o We have to be wary of the circumstances that set us off and try to avoid them as
much as possible
o Should only consider risk to public safety at sentencing
o Individualized sentencing
o Mala in se (violates society’s view of morality) vs. mala prohibita (violates a law
instituted in that specific society)
Extreme criminal mala in se crimes
Executions as punishment
Impulsive criminal mala prohibita crimes
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Document Summary

1/25/2017 lecture (based off chapter 1): corrections: the essentials. Penology study of the processes and institutions involved in the punishment and prevention of crime: the study of the corrections process, research of the processes. Corrections is the process; penology is the study of the process. Nature human personalities and behavior are largely innate: humans come into the world the way they are going to be. We are hard-wired to act a certain way and develop specific characteristics: humans are fundamentally self-centered, which is necessary for survival. We need to learn how to put the focus off ourselves and then put it on others: species evolves in a manner to address evolutionary challenges. Aggressiveness first, empathy later: source of criminality is internal to the individual. The individual themselves are responsible for committing any crime. Nurture human nature and behavior are socially constructed: human mind is a blank slate , experiences shape personalities and behavior.

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