PHIL 210 Study Guide - Final Guide: Wu Wei, Guru Granth Sahib, Falun Gong

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PHILOSOPHY 210: WORLD RELIGIONS
FINAL EXAMINATION: STUDY GUIDE
SHORT ANSWERS: Choose TEN (ALL FIFTEEN WILL APPEAR ON THE EXAM)
{Explain your answers in three or so concise sentences; worth 1 point each.} N.B.
If you do not write in sentences, you will not receive full credit.
1. What are ren and li, and how does Confucianism understand their relationship?
Ren is virtue and li is ritual. Ren is the attunement of thought and feeling. Confucius
taught that humanity’s moral must not only be nurtured, but trained through
traditional rituals (li). It provides a moral standard to the behavior of people.
2. What is the relationship between the Shang Dynasty’s conception of Shangdi and
the Zhou Dynasty’s conception of Tian?
3. What is the apparent paradox encapsulated in the Daoist doctrine of wu wei? (Be
sure to explain why the paradox is merely apparent.)
4. What is Scientology’s conception of the relationship between Thetans and
humans?
The thetan is the source of all creation and life itself. The Thetans is your “spirit”.
Your soul isn’t different from you. You are the thetan, and you wear your mind and
body.
5. What is auditing, and what is its relationship to the E-meter?
Auditing restores ability and beingness by eliminating spiritual disabilities and
enhancing individuals abilities. The goal of auditing is to exteriorize the thetan from
the body in order to achieve one’s true spiritual identity. The E-meter measures the
spiritual state and change of state.
6. Why is there some controversy regarding homosexuality in the Bahá’í religion?
The religion is accepting of individuals that are homosexual. The Bahá’í faith only
accepts sexual expression within marriage. Bahá’í marriage is strictly between one
man and one woman.
7. What are xinxing and gong and why are these beneficial to the Falun Gong
practitioner?
Xinxing is the cultivation of one’s mind and thoughts. It encompassed spiritual beliefs
as well as physical exercises. Gong is the cultivation of energy.
8. What is the Book of Shadows? Who can write in it and what can be written in it?
The Book of Shadows is rituals, spells, religious texts, and other secrets are kept.
Members are encouraged to start their own Book of Shadows. There is no restriction
on how people interpret or use their own rituals.
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9. Identify three Wiccan tools and explain their significance.
Salt Water cleanses both physically and energetically. Stones/Crystals symbolizes
Earth and placed in the North. It brings in the Earth’s energy. The wand is placed in
the South for power of will, magic, and transformation.
10. According to the Church of Latter-day Saints, what is the “Plan of Salvation”?
When our spirit left heaven to connect with our physical bodies we forgot the plan of
salvation. The three kingdoms in heaven are celestial, terrestrial, telestial. To reach
the highest kingdom, you need to seal your spouse and family, be baptized and
confirmed, obey the commandments, believe in Christ and have a testimony.
11. What is Langar? Whom do Sikhs allowed to participate in Langar and why?
Langar is a free kitchen where food is served. It is free to all the visitors, without
distinction of faith, religion, or background.
12. Identify three of Sikhism’s so-called “Five Ks” and explain their significance.
Kesh: long, uncut hair (Devotion to God)
Kanga: a comb (symbol of hygiene)
Kara: a steel bracelet (symbolic of the presence of God in every decision they make)
Kaccha: undergarment (symbol of self control and chastity)
Kirpan: ceremonial sword (symbol of dignity and injustice Sikh have faced)
13. Explain three of the problems raised by Pascal’s Wager.
14. What did the Incans call the three different realms, and what sort of beings
resided in each realm?
There was the Hanan Pacha, Kay Pacha, and Ukhu Pacha. Hanan pacha is the
realm of the Gods, it is where humans ascend after death. Kay Pacha is this world, a
physical realm of living things where there is a constant cycle of destruction and
rebirth. Ukhu Pacha is the under world. It is the place for humans who are unworthy
of Hana Pacha.
15. Who were the cronistas and why are they significant for our understanding of
Incan theology?
A cronista is a chronicler, they gather historical facts. They provided information on
the Inca people.
MULTIPLE CHOICE: Answer ALL FIFTEEN
{Record your answers in the exam booklet; worth 1 point each.}
1. Which of the following best describes the issue broached in Pascal’s Wager?
2. Which of the following is not a belief found in the I Ching (Book of Changes)?
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