# BIOL 2251 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: American Kestrel, Four-Dimensional Space, Chthamalus Stellatus

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26 Aug 2017
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BIOL 2251
Opportunity 2 Review
Chapter 4 Distribution of Species
Species: Group of individuals that can produce fertile offspring
Distribution of Individuals
o Geographic Range: Area over which the populations of a species are
distributed.
o To a geographer…
Small Scale = a map with very coarse resolution (1:100,000)
e.g. American Kestrel population/distribution of the Southwest
Large Scale = a map with very fine resolution (1:10,000)
e.g. American Kestrel population/distribution of the Southwest
Denton County
Opposite to ho ou’d orall thik: large sale = saller area; sall
scale = larger area
o On a spatial scale, it is almost like we are in the middle (100)
Is the distribution random, uniform, or clumped?
Random:
o Example: Trees
Uniform:
o Example: Penguins
Clumped:
o Things that reproduce sexually are found in clumped
distributions.
o Most organisms are clumped.
o Example: Ants, bees
How big is the realized geographic range?
Fundamental Geographic Range: where an organism could live
Realized Geographical Range: where an organism actually lives
How are the species distributed at the edge of the range?
Highly variable
How big should your sampling area be?
Depends on:
o How patchy the distribution is
o The variability of the environmental parameters
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BIOL 2251
Opportunity 2 Review
Which environmental parameters are important in
determining increased survival, growth, and
reproduction
o What/here is the edge of the populatio’s distriutio?
How and how much do the environmental
parameters change at the edge?
Steps:
o 1. Determine the area to be sampled
o 2. Determine the quadrant size
o 3. Set up your grid
o 4. Conduct Stratified Random Sampling
a) determine sub-populations within the entire
sampling area
b) randomly choose number of replicates within
each sub-population
Usually begin around 4 replicates; possibly
increase to 5 or 6 if data is more variable
o *If  repliates is too ariale,
then determine increased replicates
How? You could label the grid and draw the
grid numbers randomly from a hat
Used when abundance data is variable (it usually is)
Reduces bias
Accounts for rare and increased variable instances
Aerial Photograph Example
A B C D E
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
clumped
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BIOL 2251
Opportunity 2 Review
cover less area.
o Aerial photographs may be easier but they may not be
up-to-date
o ERICKSON’s depitio of FREMONT’s Leather Floer
10 mi geographic range
known collecting localities
2 mi distributions of populations
0.5 mi distribution of individuals of one population and the
environmental variables
Eiroetal Variales of Freot’s Leather Floer
Rocky dolomite outcrops
South and West facing slopes
Low abundance of trees
Slightly acidic, higher organic matter
Increased precipitation in the fall
Decreased precipitation in the summertime
Random distribution in clusters
o Knowing all of the parameters you can estimate the fundamental niche and
fundamental geographic range. You can also predict what outside variables (fire,
invasive species (zebra mussels), etc.) will do to the existing species and
environment.
o Depth of population: population size
o Source and sink populations
If one population has higher numbers than the others, you know it is the
source population
C = Sink Population
A = Sink Population
A is the most variable
Extinction Events
B = Source Population
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