BIOL 2251- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 62 pages long!)

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6 Oct 2017
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BIOL 2251
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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BIOL 2251
Opportunity 3 Review
Chapter 6 Dispersal and Immigration
ALFRED LOTHAR WEGENER (1880-1930)
o Plate tectonics
o Continental Drift
Explained why the same/similar species could be found in two separate,
sometimes far away, locations
There is Paleontological Evidence
The continents could possibly come together again
DONALD RUMSFELD
o Basiall stated that there is a lot that e do’t ko
30% of all animals are beetles
Insects take up about half of the species chart
We only allocate money and scientific effort into three groupings of eukaryotes, out of
many
Corixidae
o Taxonomy:
Insecta
Hemiptera
Genus: Corixidae
Species: punctata and affinis
o Hutchinson noticed two types in the pond:
C. punctata
Larger
C. affinis
o They coexist because they have different breeding seasons
Larger species breeds before the smaller species
Why do we have so many different types of species? (HUTCHINSON, 1959: Homage to
Santa Rosalia)
o 1. Natural Selection
o 2. Isolation post-dispersal or vicariance
o 3. Speciation events:
Allopatric
Sympatric
Competitive
o 4. Gause’s La AKA Copetitie Elusio Priiple
o 5. Lotka-Volterra Equations predator-prey relationships
e.g. increased predation = decreased prey
o 6. Food chain energy transfer
Increased smaller animals
Depending on plants
Increased primary consumers (most animals)
o 7. Character Displacement
The divergence of a feature of two similar species where their ranges
overlap so that each uses different resources.
When two species live in separate habitats they can have very similar
morphology; when they live in the same habitat their characteristics
diverge
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BIOL 2251
Opportunity 3 Review
Example: Finch Beak Depth beak depth changes when they inhabit the
same island but are similar on separate islands
o 8. Mosaic nature of the environment
Increased niche space
o 9. Stable Environment
Stable and more complex food webs
True or false: A complex trophic food web is more stable than a simple one.
o True
Three fundamental processes
o Extinction
o Dispersal
o Evolution
Dispersal
o Movement away from point of origin/birthplace
o Usually confined to one life-history stage
o Natural selection favors movement that is a modest distance away from the
birthplace. Why?
Modest movement away from origin:
1. Intraspecific competition
2. Sexual Reproduction not out of range
3. Energy Conservation
4. Gene flow to nearby populations
Modest eause the eiroetal paraeters hage too uh
otherwise, due to spatial autocorrelation
o 3 key events that lead to a successful dispersal:
Travel to a new area; requires morphological adaptations to make the
trip.
Withstand unfavorable conditions to make the trip.
Establish a viable population upon arrival.
o Jump Dispersal
Long distance dispersal that happens in a short time.
Example: Krakatau
Erupted in 1883, but by 1933 there were 271 plants species, 31
bird species, invertebrates.
This as ahieed  steppig stoe dispersal aross the islad
chain and jump dispersal from source lands of Java and Sumatra.
Ho a ou erif the speies juped?
Phylogeny (DNA)
Accounts for similar species inhabiting similar habitats in different
geographic areas.
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