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Midterm

ACB 3110 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug, Subcutaneous Tissue, Stratum Spinosum


Department
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
ACB 3110
Professor
Andersen Kathleen
Study Guide
Midterm

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Introduction
Positions:
Supine-laying down face up
Prone- laying down face down
Lithotomy-legs up (labor)
Trendelenburg- head down
Lateral Recumbent- side
Anatomical Position
Standard reference position
Person stands erect, flat feet, arms at side, forearms supinated,
palms/face/eyes forward
Directional Terms:
Superior (towards head) vs. Inferior (towards feet)
Medial (close to midline) vs. Lateral (further from midline)
Axial Region (bone color on diagram) vs. Appendicular Region (green
color on diagram)
o Point at which appendicular skeleton attaches to axial skeleton is
called girdles
Proximal (close to girdle) vs. Distal (further from girdle)
Superficial (closer to surface) vs. Deep (further from surface)
Planes of the Body:
Coronal (Frontal) Plane- divides into anterior and posterior
Transverse Plane- divides into superior and inferior
Sagittal Plane- divides into left and right halves (not always symmetrical)
o Midsagittal- right down the middle (midline)
o Parasagittal- parallel to midsagittal plane
Serial Sections:
Thin sections give better understanding of unusual anatomy
o To do this on a patient you put them in a helical CT- each spiral
takes a picture of that section
Body Cavities:
Dorsal Body Cavity: brain and spinal cavity
o Central Nervous System: brain and spinal cavity
o Meninges: Covering of brain and spinal cord
o Entirely bone
Ventral Body Cavity: all organs in the body except brain and spinal cord
o Serous Membrane: Covering of organs
Has visceral and parietal layer with fluid in between
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Pericardium: Serous membrane that surrounds the heart
Pleura: Serous membrane that surrounds the lung
Pleurisy: friction between visceral and parietal layers
because there is not enough fluid between them
Peritoneum: Serous membrane that surrounds the stomach
and abdominal cavity
o Surrounded by muscle (expands)
Body Regions:
Axial
o Head (cephalic)
o Neck (cervical)
o Trunk
Thorax
Abdominopelvis
o Back
Cervical
Thoracic
Lumbar
Sacral
Appendicular
o Upper Limbs
Arm (brachial)
Forearm (antebrachial)
Wrist (carpal)
Hand (manus)
Fingers (digits)
o Lower Limbs
Thigh (femoral)
Leg (cural)
Ankle (tarsal)
Foot (Pedal)
Toes (digits)
Levels of Human Structure
Cellular (cytology- study of cells)
Tissue (histology)- cells together for a common function
o Cellular and tissue both at microscopic level
Organ-two or more tissues together
System- organs together for one common function
o Organ and organ systems both at macroscopic (gross) level-
anything you can see with the naked eye
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Methods of Study:
Gross Anatomy:
o Dissection
o Cadaver
o Autopsy
o Exploratory Surgery-dissection on a living body
Medical Imaging
o Radiology (X-ray)
o Computed Tomography (CT)
o Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
o Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Done mostly in brain, insert glucose which will go to most
active region of the brain to see what part of the brain is or
isn’t active
o Sonography (ultrasound)
Clinical Procedures
o Inspection
o Palpation- feeling
o Percussion- tapping over different areas to get different sounds
o Auscultation- listen, done with stethoscope
o Reflex Response
Unit 1- Building the Body
Cytology
Intracellular: inside the cell
o Organelles suspended in cytosol, which makes up the cytoplasm
Extracellular: outside the cell
Plasma Membrane- separates intracellular and extracellular
Permeability: Dictates how easy or hard it is for things to move in or out of
the cell
o Oxygen and glucose come in the cell easily
Secrete: passing from intracellular to extracellular
Differentiation: development of a more specialized form and function
o What genes are turned on dictates differentiation
Cellular diversity- shape/size, function
DNA:
Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
Histones are wrapped inside DNA
3 billion base pairs are in one strand of DNA which collectively is called a
genome
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