[COMM 1301] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 22 pages long Study Guide!

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COMM 1301
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Items in bold are clicker questions
OVERVIEW/INTRODUCTION
Communication: the field, the department/major, the symbolic term; Aristotle’s connection
-A field of study that began in 400 BC with Aristotle
-Aristotle: tried to categorize everything
-How do you get people to do what you want them to do (Social Influence)
- Largely unknown by that name outside the US and Scandinavia
-Communication:
-Study processes of constructing meaning
-Symbolic term within a specific cultural group comm specific to specific groups, not
a universal understanding
-Aristotle was the great categorizer, 1917&1945 interest goes way up WWII. 1918&1920 started
to split off and study rhetoric and persuasion alone 1945 comm started from psychology
-Communication: a process of creating meaning (and working within systems of meaning)
to coordinate action*
4 dimensions of communicationTwo approaches (Tracy & Robles)
-Effects/No effects
-Symbolic/Nonsymbolic
-Verbal/nonverbal
-Intentional/Unintentional
The connections and distinctions between them
Two Perspectives: Cultural and Rhetorical
1. Rhetorical Perspective: choices between alternatives
a. In any situation, people might have competing goals, so you have to make choices
based on these goals
2. Cultural perspective: communication is all about patterns or constraints
a. Social expectation and outcomes that come with these actions
3 Identities in talk: Identity: personal aspects of who you are and groups level identification
(comes out with communication with others)
1. Master: references to people who make them who they are; gender, race, age regional
origins ex) female, 21 yrs old, Italian, German, Irish
a. Aspects of identity that are stable don’t change
2. Interactional: specific roles that people take on in a communitive context with regard to
specific ppl ex) daughter, sister, roommate, mom, employee
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3. Personal/relational Speech: features of self that are treated as stable even though they
vary from situation to situation
a. ex) personality and attitude: outgoing, respectful, nice, friendly, Personality
characteristics
SYMBOLIC/ NOT SYMBOLIC
Speech code/moral code/cultural code (all synonyms for the same idea);
Moral codes arise within speech communities from successive definitions of situation;
moral codes are systems of norms (rules for behavior) and their meanings.
EX) symbolic force of moral code rules about marriage: marriage equality, Helen
Fischer’s 4 yr theorycouple for life goes against biology
Forks and situations as examples: most rules for proper behavior are arbitrary not connected to
physical needs or realities. But they are invested with emotion so they symbolically constitute
“civilized”/ polite behavior
Constitutive view of communication:
Communication constitutes (creates/constructs) reality; it does not simply represent
(Reflect/desire) reality
-Ex: what is going on here?
and how that’s different from the representative view
True/False: COMMUNICATION CONSTITUES REALITY (Not Represents)
Symbols: physical object linked to an emotion, idea, or memory
Ex. a ring (symbol) = marriage, a promise EMOTION
Symbolism: fundamental to human communication
o Symbolic objects and actions are more clearly communicated actively (Paper vs.
money money ties to emotion, its symbolic)
Signs: physical object closely related to another physical object or state (animals can use this)
Ex. Smoke = fire, clouds = rain
*According to Tracy&Robles an animal with a name will have symbolic meaning and not
be eaten
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