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BIOL 102 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Anal Canal, Pulmonary Artery, Salivary Gland

Course Code
BIOL 102
Allison Smith
Study Guide

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· Define the four stages of food processing
o Ingestion
o Digestion
o Absorption
o Elimination
§ Not the same as excretion
Why is it necessary to break down food?
o Breakdown protein by human digestive system
o Absorption of amino acids by cells lining the small intestine
o Cells use amino acids to produce new human protein
What is the difference between mechanical and chemical digestion?
o Mechanical digestion
§ Increases surface area
o Chemical digestion
§ Macromolecule
§ Digestive enzymes
§ Hydrolysis water is need to break down (dehydration is opposite)
How do animals digest their food without digesting themselves?
o Compartmentation
§ Mucus coating
§ Cell replacement
o Digestive tube or alimentary canal
§ Tube with to openings
§ Specialized areas digest/ absorb
§ Accessory organs (liver, gallbladder)
· Altimetry canal
o oral cavity, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon of large intestine,
appendix, rectum, anus
· the mouth: what is its functions?
o Ingestion
o Teeth
o Saliva
§ Salivary amylase
o Tongue
§ Skeletal muscle
§ Taste receptors
§ Manipulates ingested food
· What is the pharynx and its function?
o Throat
§ Breathing
· Air flowing into open trachea
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§ Swallowing
o Swallowing reflex
§ Larynx moves up
§ Epiglottis
· What is the role of the esophagus?
o Muscular tube (skeletal and smooth)
o Mouth-stomach connector
o Peristalsis
o No role in absorption
§ One-way flow
§ What about vomiting
· What is the role of the stomach?
o Food storage
o Mechanical digestion
o Mucus production
Chemical digestion
§ Chyme (gastric juice + food)
§ Gastric juice
· HCl
· Pepsin (digests proteins)
· What is the role of the small intestine?
o Duodenum receives
§ Chyme, pancreas juice, and bile
o Chemical digestion: proteins, fats, carbs and nucleic acids
o Absorption
§ Bloodstream (sugars and amino acids)
§ Lymph (fats)
· What is the role of the large intestine?
o LI colon = colon, appendix, rectum, anal canal
o Process undigested material
§ Feces formation
o Re-absorption of water
o Vitamins produced by intestinal bacteria
§ Vitamin K and biotin
· What are the accessory organs and what are their digestive functions?
o Salivary glands: produces saliva, helps break down carbohydrates, lubricates
o Liver: process the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine
o Gall bladder: sac under liver: stores bile
o pancreas: releases powerful digestive enzymes into the small intestine to aid the digestion of
food. It releases the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream
bile=bile acid
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Character 22: Human Nutrition
· What are basic human nutritional requirements?
o Fuel
o Building blocks
§ Organic molecules containing C,O,H,N,P
o Essential nutrients: must be obtained in food
§ Cannot be synthesized by organisms(humans)
· Essential amino acids
o 8 of 20 amino acids are essential
o Can all be contained from meat
· Essential fatty acids
· Vitamins
· Minerals
· What are essential nutrients?
o Essential amino acids(8)
o Essential fatty acids
§ Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids
o Minerals
§ Inorganic
§ Calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, etc.
o Vitamins
§ Organic molecules
§ A,B,C,D,E,K
· What are vitamins?
o A:precursor to pigment important for vision
o B:precursors to molecules important for aerobic respiration(breaking glucose into oxygen,
catalyst is heat)
o C:Anitoxidant, important for collagen synthesis
o D:Absorption of calcium and phosphorus for bone growth
o E:Antioxidant
o K:precursor for blood clotting molecules
· What are minerals?
· What are the basic functions of the vitamins?
Chapter 23:Circulatory System
Why is the circulatory system needed in complex organisms?
· Singe cell vs multicellular organism
What are the two main methods that gases, nutrients, and wastes are transported to cells?
· Bulk flow high level of pressure to low level of pressure
· Membrane transport :kind of like a wall
o Diffusion: moving from higher areas of concentration to lower areas of concentration
§ Ex. Perfume spreading
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