BIOL 257 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Lipid Bilayer, Glycoprotein, Virtual Image

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6 Feb 2017
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BIOL 257
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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The Discovery of Cells
First seen in primitive microscope by Robert Hooke
Better lenses-more precise images/smaller thingsAnton van Leeuwenhoek
Variations on the optical microscope
visible light microscopes
o microscopes that use visible light
o described by their field
o four types
bright-field
dark-field
phase-contrast
interference
Electron Microscopy
focused electron beam
wavelength=6pm
100,000 x less than red visible light
The discovery of effects of Microbes
ancient belief: disease/spoilagespontaneous generation
o things left out go bad
maggots and spoilage come from nothing
o also, rats, mushrooms other form of life
o
Eve afte disovey of aialules  opetig eliefs
o Abiogenesis
o Biogenesis
8’s
o Francesco Redi meat only gets maggots when exposed to flies
o Louis Jablotsterile solutions only get contaminated when exposed to dust
o Franz Shultz and Theodor Schwan if steilize ai, liuid a’t get contaminated
o Louis Pasteur if particles i ai a’t eah liuid, no contamination
Not some spontaneous generation factor in air that gets destroyed by
heat
The development of medical microbiology
The discovery of Spores and Sterilization
o Louis Pasteur: most heated solutions no contamination if no direct air
exposure
o John Tyndall: some microbe has very high heat resistance- difficult to destroy
Need to better sterilize things
Heat sometimes not enough
o Ferdinand Cohn: heat resistance due to sporesbetter sterilization
The development of Aseptic technique
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o From ancient timesvapors from dead/decaying cause disease
o mid-8’s maybe microorganism cause disease
Oliver Wendell Holmes: mothers who give birth at homeless infections
than hospital
Ignaz Semmelweis: doctors coming directly from autopsy ward more
infections in maternity ward
Surgeons wore same bloody apron until stiff and crusty
o Joseph Lister: introduced limited aseptic technique
Disinfect hands and air
Change out of street clothes before surgery
Heat things fully
o Louis Pasteur
Pasteurization
The germ theory of disease
Contaminating factors in the air prevented by swan-necked flask
cause disease
o Koh’s poedue : ifet ad test
o
Who are the microbes?
o Some are alive:
o Both prokaryotes
Bacteria
Archea
o Eukaryotes
Algae, protozoa, helminths, and fungi
o Some are not
Viruses
To be alive you need to have a cell
Have genetic material but makes the host use them
o Two fundamentally different classes of cellular microbes:
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
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