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Midterm

INTRO BIOLOGY A Midterm 1 Notes - I got a 4.0 on the Midterm!

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 101
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
MIDTERM 1 LECTURE 1 • All organisms made of cells • Smallest living unit • All are: enclosed by membrane + use DNA as gen material 3 Kingdoms (which are euk and prok) • • Find examples of each • Purpose of cell is: • A finite unit, controls inside and outside • Differences b/t prokaryotes and euk • Euk has 3 things prok doesnt • Prok has (what that euk has) • What do they have instead of nucleous • Components of the endomembrane system (6) • Two ways shit travels between them • Nucleus • (enclosed by, which has ____ to do what) • Shape maintained by ____ composed of ____ • DNA - arranged as _____, made of _____ and _____ • ____ located w/in nucleus • ER • How does stuff get from nucleus to it • Smooth v Rough • What they have • What they produce/do • Ribosomes- two places you find them • What they are made of • Golgi - what’s it does • Consists of ________ (describe them and name them) (LECTURE 2 ) 3 things golgi does • • Lysosomes • What is it • Primary and secondary lysosomes Vacuoles • • What type of cells have em • Important mainly for • Other types of vacuoles Mitochondria & Chloroplasts • • What’s unique about them • What does each do • Mitochondrion anatomy (parts), also chloroplast (can you draw) Where are the prokaryotic parts located • • Peroxisomes and glyoxysomes • Involved in _______ • Don’t have DNA or RNA or ribosomes Cytoskeleton • • What is it • Provides ______ and ________ • 3 components (types of fibers) • Each’s size, what is it made of • Dyneins- motor protein • Cilia and flagella • Do what • Anatomy (core of _____ sheathed by ______) • Anchored by • Movements driven by ______ protein • Animal v plant cell • 4 things not in animal • 3 things not in plant • Extracellular structures • Plants have_____, animals have ______ • Prokaryotes have_______ • Intercellular junctions • Plant cells _____ • Animal cells (3) • What does each do • Animals’ ECM • Each part • ECM purpose • Transport of small substances • Passive (normally or through_____) • Active (Through __________) • Transport of large substances • Endo(3 things)/Exo (LECTURE 3) • Trace the path of exocytosis (protein secretion) from beginning - nucleus • Receptor ME- Diagram, path, vocab • Functional groups: Hydroxyl, carboxyl, carbonyl, amino, phosphate, methyl, sulfhydryl • • The four macromolecules • Monomers and polymers (one isn’t an actual polymer) • Proteins & Polypeptides • Protein functions (6) • Amino acids, properties, 20 or so different kinds (variation comes from…) Polymerization of AAs • • Four levels of protein structure •Primary •Secondary Interactions from what part of the acids specifically • •Tertiary • B/t what part of amino acids • What kind of forces (2-3) •Quaternary LECTURE 4 • Protein folding and denaturation: what needs to be controlled in environment/what can change protein • Denaturation and renaturation Protein folding assisted by ____________ • • Describe the process • Enzymes (what are they) • Activation energy and how they affect it Enzyme, substrate, active site, E-S complex • •Induced-fit • Enzyme activity defined by Vmax and Km • Regulated by ________ • Types of inhibitors, what they do (both physically and on a graph) LECTURE 5 • Carbohydrates • Do what •General monosaccharide structure •Each monomer linked by •Isomers; how the different change can cause a different structure • A & Beta glucose and what each makes • Diff. Between starch and glycogen (produced by…) • Organization of cellulose in plant cell wall • Cellulose - we can’t break down, but cows do, why? • Another structural polysaccharide- chitin • Nucleic Acids Two kinds • • Monomers •Oth
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