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INTRO BIOLOGY A Midterm 3 Notes - I got a 4.0 on the Midterm!

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BIOL 101
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MT3SG * go through this directly w/ ppts at hand (many diagrams) Plants and Biotechnology 10/30 listen to lecture • Most of our food energy comes from _________ • Artificial selection in creating our recent food plants • Some crops produced by grafting shoot to root (scion to stock) • Limits to traditional breeding methods.. replaced by ______ methods. eg GM plants plants or ________ • In transgenic plants, uses bacterium agrobacterium tumefaciens as vector • Some plants more easily affected by it. specifically _________ plants • The other kind requires a microinjection of it • Regeneration of plants possible b/c _______________ • Define the vocab word used • CaMV35S • Prominent plant cell features • Remnant part of plant cell after cell wall degraded by enzyme: • Functions/usefulness of these • Plants with ________ reduce need for chemical insecticides The Plant body 11/4 • draw diagram of shoot & root system? • Root v shoot system • Many plants have modified stems or leaves- give examples • Types of buds/meristems • cell walls glued together by ________ • Made of ________ • label that diagram: ----------------------> Primary & secondary cell wall made of: • • Three main plant tissue types • what is included in each •categories within each type • the three types of ground tissue • Two major groups of flowering plants • how monocots v dicots differ in: •Root structure Root cross section • •Stem, leaves •pollen, flowers Plant Growth 11/6 • Determinate v Indeterminate • Primary/secondary growth • primary plant body • meristem types on each • give rise to ____ and ___ • Lateral meristems in stem: _________ • Each gives rise to what? • ______ and _____ of cell important to cell division • Look up embryogenesis in book? • Early primary growth: what structures develop to break out of soil and protect meristem? • Root ap. meristems: growth in three zones, each for what purpose (sketch) • Root tip covered by • Lateral roots: arise in __________ • branch roots are what kind of growth? • Shoot primary growth: at __________ • leaves develop from _________ • axillary buds develop from • Apical meristem is length, lateral meristem is _________ Vascular cambium gives rise to ________, cork cambium gives rise to ________ • • Process of growth into bark, etc with lateral meristems (look at diagrams in slides) • Secondary growth in stem: • Vascular cambium is ________ that is how thick? • Develops from what kind of cells? What is wood? • • What is bark? • What makes up the periderm • Vascular cambium of perennials dormant during winter • Gas exchange can happen through spaces in the periderm called __________. Water potential/transport 11/8 • Xylem transport is up, phloem both ways • Xylem consists of only tracheids in most ________, consists of both tracheids and vessels in most ___________ • Characteristics of tracheids & vessels: cell wall, functional maturity... • Differences between them • how water flows through each • Pits in tracheids • what they are, and their usefulness • Perforation plates at end of vessel elements • Transpiration and water transport • What does water loss create in xylem of plant? • Net uptake/loss of water in the cell is determined by ________, which is affected by _______ and _________ • Water potential is a measurement that combines: ____ and _____ • Flows from ____ to ____ WP • Measured in units: Conditions when Ψ=0 • • Conditions (?) • Solute and pressure potential • Solute potential (also called _____) is proportional to _________ • Can be positive and/or negative? • Pressure potential is ________ • can be positive and/or negative? • Turgor pressure is __________ • Plasmolysis • Turgidity/becoming turgid vs wilting • How it stops lysing Transpiration and Phloem Transport 11/11 • Transpiration happens through_______. Why is it inevitable? Leaf cross section: know parts and tissue types • • Guard cells- what makes them open? • How can plant change this? • Mechanism of h2o movement up the xylem is called: • Water moves up the plant b/c of _______ and ______ Needs to stay a continuous column of water. • • Cannot be interrupted by air. This is called: • What controls rate of transpiration • Which affect the boundary layer • In what condition is transpiration greatest Resistance offered by boundary layer is proportional to __________ • • Increasing wind speed does what to boundary layer • Bigger leaves have thicker boundary layers • With respect to boundary layers, compound leaves act like____________ • Lobed leaves vs whole leaves Carbohydrates transported (through phloem) in the form of ________. Most green • plants store them in the form of _________ • Explain the makeup of each of these • Translocation from source to sink of sugar • Contents of phloem • Sieve tube elements and companion cells • Characteristics •they are connected • Ways sucrose can enter sieve tube elements • In some species companion cells highly modified as ______ cells: • active transport way that sucrose or other nutrients enter a membrane: • Pressure flow model. (the method that drives translocation in flowering plants) • How sugar moves down phloem • Force that causes sucrose to move into the sink from sieve tube • Electrical signaling in phloem • Can affect transcription, respiration, photosynthesis, etc • phloem is a superhighway for ______________ communication •allows for functions of plant to be integrated •Can transport macromolecules, RNAs, hormones, signal molecules, etc. Plant Nutrition 11/13 • Plant cells surrounded by cell wall made of ___________ • Plant divided into two distinct domains: _____________ and ____________ • What does each consist of What are the three routes that stuff can go through • •what usually takes which route? • Issue with xylem and control of solute concentrations •What is in place to control that? • What’s it made of (which does what) Mineral nutrition: main nutrients plants need? • • Ways in which plant gets nitrogen: • understand cycle • Plant transports it in the form of ______ and ______ through the _____ • The nitro-fixing _________ bacteria are found particularly on ________, infecting the ________ on the plants’ roots •Inside the nodule, the rhizobium bacteria assume a form called _______. THere are also free-living bacteria that do this •The enzyme that fixes the nitrogen to NH4 is called ________ •Root nodules have __________, which traps O2 to keep it from nitrogenase • Uptake of P is facilitated by symbiotic relationship b/t plants and fungi called _______ •Work like _______ • covers root in a _________ • Versions on the outside and in inside of plant called ______ and ______ • Too much nutrition and issues with that • Soil horizons • A, B, C •What each consists of • Soil chemistry depends a great deal on • Soil fertility and cation displacement • Soil charge is usually • plants uptake cations they need by • Soil fertility measured as _________ • WHat about anions (NO3)? • Effect of soil pH •On cation exchange capacity •on nutrient solubility/availability •Benefits and problems as acidity increases (good acidic vs too acidic) • Soil makeup •What is the perfect combination • Soil water potential • How can soil hold water? (two ways) The smaller the soil particle size,... • Regulation of plant growth 11/15 (no lecture notes) • Alternate ways of getting nutrients Be an __________ and get nutrients from rain/air or small amt of soil on tree trunk • • Parasite attach to another plant’s vascular system through___________ • Be insectivorous • Plant hormones are . . . ______ • Affect __________
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