MT3SG * go through this directly w/ ppts at hand (many
Plants and Biotechnology 10/30 listen to lecture
• Most of our food energy comes from _________
• Artificial selection in creating our recent food plants
• Some crops produced by grafting shoot to root (scion to stock)
• Limits to traditional breeding methods.. replaced by ______ methods. eg GM plants
plants or ________
• In transgenic plants, uses bacterium agrobacterium tumefaciens as vector
• Some plants more easily affected by it. specifically _________ plants
• The other kind requires a microinjection of it
• Regeneration of plants possible b/c _______________
• Define the vocab word used
• Prominent plant cell features
• Remnant part of plant cell after cell wall degraded by enzyme:
• Functions/usefulness of these
• Plants with ________ reduce need for chemical insecticides
The Plant body 11/4
• draw diagram of shoot & root system?
• Root v shoot system
• Many plants have modified stems or leaves- give examples
• Types of buds/meristems
• cell walls glued together by ________
• Made of ________
• label that diagram: ---------------------->
Primary & secondary cell wall made of:
• Three main plant tissue types
• what is included in each
•categories within each type
• the three types of ground tissue
• Two major groups of flowering plants
• how monocots v dicots differ in:
Root cross section
Plant Growth 11/6 • Determinate v Indeterminate
• Primary/secondary growth
• primary plant body
• meristem types on each
• give rise to ____ and ___
• Lateral meristems in stem: _________
• Each gives rise to what?
• ______ and _____ of cell important to cell division
• Look up embryogenesis in book?
• Early primary growth: what structures develop to break out of soil
and protect meristem?
• Root ap. meristems: growth in three zones, each for what purpose (sketch)
• Root tip covered by
• Lateral roots: arise in __________
• branch roots are what kind of growth?
• Shoot primary growth: at __________
• leaves develop from _________
• axillary buds develop from
• Apical meristem is length, lateral meristem is _________
Vascular cambium gives rise to ________, cork cambium gives rise to ________
• Process of growth into bark, etc with lateral meristems (look at diagrams in slides)
• Secondary growth in stem:
• Vascular cambium is ________ that is how thick?
• Develops from what kind of cells?
What is wood?
• What is bark?
• What makes up the periderm
• Vascular cambium of perennials dormant during winter
• Gas exchange can happen through spaces in the periderm called __________.
Water potential/transport 11/8
• Xylem transport is up, phloem both ways
• Xylem consists of only tracheids in most ________, consists of both tracheids and
vessels in most ___________
• Characteristics of tracheids & vessels: cell wall, functional maturity...
• Differences between them
• how water flows through each
• Pits in tracheids
• what they are, and their usefulness
• Perforation plates at end of vessel elements • Transpiration and water transport
• What does water loss create in xylem of plant?
• Net uptake/loss of water in the cell is determined by ________, which is affected by
_______ and _________
• Water potential is a measurement that combines: ____ and _____
• Flows from ____ to ____ WP
• Measured in units:
Conditions when Ψ=0
• Conditions (?)
• Solute and pressure potential
• Solute potential (also called _____) is proportional to _________
• Can be positive and/or negative?
• Pressure potential is ________
• can be positive and/or negative?
• Turgor pressure is __________
• Turgidity/becoming turgid vs wilting
• How it stops lysing
Transpiration and Phloem Transport 11/11
• Transpiration happens through_______. Why is it inevitable?
Leaf cross section: know parts and tissue types
• Guard cells- what makes them open?
• How can plant change this?
• Mechanism of h2o movement up the xylem is called:
• Water moves up the plant b/c of _______ and ______
Needs to stay a continuous column of water.
• Cannot be interrupted by air. This is called:
• What controls rate of transpiration
• Which affect the boundary layer
• In what condition is transpiration greatest
Resistance offered by boundary layer is proportional to __________
• Increasing wind speed does what to boundary layer
• Bigger leaves have thicker boundary layers
• With respect to boundary layers, compound leaves act like____________
• Lobed leaves vs whole leaves
Carbohydrates transported (through phloem) in the form of ________. Most green
plants store them in the form of _________
• Explain the makeup of each of these
• Translocation from source to sink of sugar • Contents of phloem
• Sieve tube elements and companion cells
•they are connected
• Ways sucrose can enter sieve tube elements
• In some species companion cells highly modified as ______ cells:
• active transport way that sucrose or other nutrients enter a membrane:
• Pressure flow model. (the method that drives translocation in flowering plants)
• How sugar moves down phloem
• Force that causes sucrose to move into the sink from sieve tube
• Electrical signaling in phloem
• Can affect transcription, respiration, photosynthesis, etc
• phloem is a superhighway for ______________ communication
•allows for functions of plant to be integrated
•Can transport macromolecules, RNAs, hormones, signal molecules, etc.
Plant Nutrition 11/13
• Plant cells surrounded by cell wall made of ___________
• Plant divided into two distinct domains: _____________ and ____________
• What does each consist of
What are the three routes that stuff can go through
•what usually takes which route?
• Issue with xylem and control of solute concentrations
•What is in place to control that?
• What’s it made of (which does what)
Mineral nutrition: main nutrients plants need?
• Ways in which plant gets nitrogen:
• understand cycle
• Plant transports it in the form of ______ and ______ through the _____
• The nitro-fixing _________ bacteria are found particularly on ________,
infecting the ________ on the plants’ roots
•Inside the nodule, the rhizobium bacteria assume a form called _______.
THere are also free-living bacteria that do this
•The enzyme that fixes the nitrogen to NH4 is called ________
•Root nodules have __________, which traps O2 to keep it from nitrogenase
• Uptake of P is facilitated by symbiotic relationship b/t plants and fungi called
•Work like _______
• covers root in a _________
• Versions on the outside and in inside of plant called ______ and ______ • Too much nutrition and issues with that
• Soil horizons
• A, B, C
•What each consists of
• Soil chemistry depends a great deal on
• Soil fertility and cation displacement
• Soil charge is usually
• plants uptake cations they need by
• Soil fertility measured as _________
• WHat about anions (NO3)?
• Effect of soil pH
•On cation exchange capacity
•on nutrient solubility/availability
•Benefits and problems as acidity increases (good acidic vs too acidic)
• Soil makeup
•What is the perfect combination
• Soil water potential
• How can soil hold water? (two ways)
The smaller the soil particle size,...
Regulation of plant growth 11/15 (no lecture notes)
• Alternate ways of getting nutrients
Be an __________ and get nutrients from rain/air or small amt of soil on tree trunk
• Parasite attach to another plant’s vascular system through___________
• Be insectivorous
• Plant hormones are . . . ______
• Affect __________