BIO 102 Exam 1 (2010).doc

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University of Pennsylvania
BIOL 102
Timothy L I N K S V A Y E R

Biology 102 – First Midterm – Spring 2010 Your signature below certifies that you have complied with the Code of Academic Integrity of the University of Pennsylvania in taking this exam. This code with be strictly enforced! Signature___________________________________________________________ Your Name (print): __________________________________________________ Check the name of your lab instructor and write in your lab section: ____ Lori Spindler ____ Staver Bezhani ____ Acong Xu • DO NOT OPEN YOUR EXAM UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO. • This is a closed book exam. You will have 50 minutes to complete the exam. • Make sure you have a complete exam (10 pages, 35 questions). • You must use a pen to complete this exam. Do not use red ink, pencil or white-out on the exam. • Please be sure to budget your time so that you can complete the entire exam, including both multiple choice and short answer questions. For multiple choice questions, circle the letter of the single best answer. On short answer questions, confine your answer to the space provided and write legibly. • If a question appears ambiguous, ask a proctor; proctors will answer questions only if they feel that your question reveals a genuine ambiguity in the wording of the question. Page Questions Possible Points Points Received 2 1-4 8 3 5-9 10 4 10-14 10 5 15-20 12 6 21-25 10 7 26-30 10 8 31-32 16 9 33-34 16 10 35 8 Total 100 1 Multiple choice questions (2 points each; only one correct answer per question) 1) During a study session about evolution, one of your fellow students remarks, "The giraffe stretched its neck while reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result." Which statement is most likely to be helpful in correcting this student's misconception? A) Characteristics acquired during an organism's life are generally not passed on through genes. B) Spontaneous mutations can result in the appearance of new traits. C) Only favorable adaptations have survival value. D) Disuse of an organ may lead to its eventual disappearance. E) Overproduction of offspring leads to a struggle for survival. 21) Batesian mimicry systems depend on all of the following EXCEPT A) the models being noxious or disagreeable. B) the mimics being easily recognized. C) the ability of the predators to “learn” characteristics of their prey. D) the models being cryptically colored. E) the models being easily recognized. 3) Which of the following statements is an inference of natural selection? A) Subsequent generations of a population should have greater proportions of individuals that possess traits better suited for success. B) An individual organism undergoes evolution over the course of its lifetime. C) Habitats do not generally have unlimited resources. D) Natural populations tend to reproduce to their full biological potential. E) Some of the variation that exists among individuals in a population is genetic. 4) Which of the following statements is not an inference of natural selection? A) Subsequent generations of a population should have greater proportions of individuals that possess favorable traits. B) An individual organism undergoes evolution over the course of its lifetime. C) Often only a fraction of offspring survive, because there is a struggle for limited resources. D) Individuals whose inherited characteristics best fit them to the environment should leave more offspring. E) Unequal reproductive success among its members leads a population to adapt over time. 2 5) Which process hinders clarification of the deepest branchings in a phylogenetic tree that depicts the origins of the three domains? A) binary fission B) secondary endosymbiosis C) primary endosymbiosis D) horizontal gene transfer E) gene duplication 6) Over evolutionary time, many cave-dwelling organisms have lost their eyes. Tapeworms have lost their digestive systems. Whales have lost their hind limbs. How can natural selection account for these losses? A) Natural selection cannot account for losses, only for innovations. B) Natural selection accounts for these losses by the principle of use and disuse. C) Under particular circumstances that persisted for long periods, each of these structures presented greater costs than benefits. D) The ancestors of these organisms experienced harmful mutations that forced them to find new habitats that these species had not previously used. 7) Birds, amphibians, mammals and reptiles are usually considered separate classes of tetrapods. Which one of the following statements is true? A) The four classes do not form a monophyletic group. B) Reptiles are a paraphyletic group. C) Birds are a polyphyletic group. D) Amphibians and reptiles are polyphyletic group. E) Birds, mammals and reptiles together form a paraphyletic group. 8) Of the following anatomical structures, which is homologous to the wing of a bat? A) dorsal fin of a shark B) tail of a kangaroo C) wing of a butterfly D) tail fin of a fish E) arm of a human 9) Many duck species produce exactly 10 eggs in each clutch. Those producing fewer or more than this have reduced fitness. Which of the following terms best describes this? A) artificial selection B) directional selection C) stabilizing selection D) disruptive selection E) sexual selection 3 10) When we say that an individual organism has a greater fitness than another individual, we specifically mean that the organism A) lives longer than others of its species. B) competes for resources more successfully than others of its species. C) mates more frequently than others of its species. D) utilizes resources more efficiently than other species occupying similar niches. E) leaves more viable offspring than others of its species. 11) Which example below will most likely guarantee that two closely related species will remain distinct biological species? A) colonization of new habitats B) convergent evolution C) hybridization D) geographic isolation from one another E) reproductive isolation from one another 12) There is still some controversy among biologists about whether Neanderthals should be
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