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Study Guide

PSYC 001 Study Guide - Spring 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Working Memory, Memory, Amygdala


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 001
Professor
Phil Gehrman
Study Guide
Final

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PSYC 001

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Lecture 1 1/23/2019
3 frames of psychology:
1. thoughts (cognition)
2. feelings (emotion, affect)
3. behavior (actions)
The Scientific Method:
Psychology the scientific study of the mind (thoughts, feelings, and behavior)
Psycho means “mind”
“Flaw” of a scientific study = “an alternative explanation”
Goals of a study:
Description of the way people feel, think, and behave
Explanation of behavior
Prediction of behavior
(Control) or application to influence
Steps of a Scientific Process:
1. Form a Hypothesis have an idea of a scientific question (comes from observations)
a. Not getting enough sleep contributes to poor academic experience
b. Hypothesis must be measurable and testable
c. Operational definition fewer hours of sleep as measured by self-reported sleep
deprivation is associated with poor academic performance as measured by GPA
d. Independent and Dependent (dependent on independent variable) variables -
academic performance is dependent on hours of sleep
2. Literature Review read published scientific studies to see if someone has done this
3. Design the Study
a. Sample who are you going to be studying (must be representative of the
population)
b. True random sampling no bias every person in the population has an equal
chance of being selected for the study
c. Representative generalizability external validity
d. Size larger sample to be more like the population (20/30 or 800,000) what is
enough depends on the type of question you are asking
e. Internal validity idea of experimental control and alternative explanation
maybe people lie or underreport hours of sleep bias
f. Cross-sectional study (correlational research) (cross section in time that shows
relationship between two variables) correlation cannot show cause and effect
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g. Experimental study involves manipulation recruit a bunch of students, some are
only allowed 5 hours per night while the rest are allowed to sleep 8 hours per
night experimental group and control group with random assignment
4. Conduct the Study
5. Collect Data and Analyze Results
a. Descriptive Statistics describe the sample (what effects and relationships do we
see in the sample) if your sample was the true population, you would only have
to do descriptive statistics
b. Inferential Statistics based on what you learned in your sample, what can you
infer about the population
c. The p value probability value (if in reality there is no difference, what is the
probability that you found this difference anyways) you want this less than 0.05
shows how much confidence you have that what you found in your sample is
representative of the population
6. Report Results submit publication in scientific journal replication is critical before
concluding how good the results of the study are
Ethical Issues:
Study effect of syphilis, withheld that there was a treatment available for African
Americans “in the sake of science”
Informed consent must give document that describes everything the study entails (what
they have to do, risks, what knowledge will be gained) before they agree to participate in
the study
o Some people may not want to join if they might get the placebo
Sometimes deception is used in social psychology, but there are very strict requirements
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