APG 203 Exam 2 study guide terms

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APG 203
Professor Garcia- Quijano

APG 203 Exam 2 study guide Terms: ** I didn’t get all the terms, but I got 99% of them** • Functionalism o Approach focusing on the role (function) of sociocultural practices in social systems • Radcliffe-Brown o Although history is important, social anthropology could never hope to discover the histories of people without writing  Social anthropology is cultural anthropology in Great Britain o Urged anthropologists to focus on role that particular practices play in the life of societies today • Evans-Pritchard o Prominent British social anthropologist o The Nuer (1940)  Laid out the structural principles that organized the Nuer society in what is now south Sudan • Dr. Pangloss/ Panglossian o Character in Volatare’s Candide who was fond of proclaiming “the best of all possible worlds” o Panglossian functionalism means a tendency to see things as functioning, not just to maintain the system but to do so in the most optimum way possible, so that any deviation from the norm would only damage the system • Manchester School o British school well known for their research in African societies and their departure from a Panglossian view of social harmony • Victor Turner o Manchester school anthropologist o Made conflict an important part of his analysis with Max Gluckman in their study of rebellion • Configurationalism o View of culture as integrated and patterned • Leslie White o Evolution of Culture (1959) o No doubt that cultures have evolved, but not all evolve at the same rate • Julian Steward o Theory of Culture Change (1955) o Multilinear evolution • Energy o Cultures advanced in proportion to the amount of energy harnessed per capita per year • Multilinear evolution o Steward- creatures have evolved along several different lines • Technology Steward-technology and environment are the main • Environment causes of culture change; technology and environment make up the culture core • Infrastructure o All societies have infrastructure consisting of technology, economics and demography (the system of production and reproduction without which societies cannot survive) • Structure o Structure grows out of infrastructure  Social relations • Super structure o Religion, ideology, play determined by structure and infrastructure • Core o Culture core- the combination of environmental and economic factors that determined the social order and configuration of the culture in general • Periphery o Weakest structural and economic position in the world system • Super organic o Kroeber o The special domain of culture, beyond the organic and inorganic realms • Emile Durkheim o Called for a new social science to be based in the conscience collectif  Shared conscience between people= culture o Durkheim is a common father of anthropology and sociology • Symbolic anthropology o Study of symbols in their social and cultural context • Interpretive anthropology o Defined culture as idea based on culture, learning and symbols • Structualism o Rests on Strauss’s belief that human minds have certain universal characteristics, which originate in the common features of the Homo sapiens brain o These common mental structures lead people everywhere to think similarly regardless of their society or mental background • Claude-Levi Strauss o Anthropologist, social theorist o Claimed human minds have certain universal traits (mental structure) which originate in common features of Homo sapiens brain • World System Theory o Movement of anthropology toward interdisciplinary o Has been criticized for overstressing influence of outsiders • Wallerstein o Created world system theory • Bourdieu Contend it is easier to • Focault dominate people in their minds than to try and control their bodies • Power Stoler examined systems of power, • Domination domination, accommodation, • Resistance and resistance in various contexts Lecture Topic 4 • Applied anthropology o Use of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary problems • Culture and human rights o 1970’s- students were very interested in anthropology in southeast Asia where indigenous societies were being disrupted by war. Anthropologists found jobs with international organizations, government, businesses, hospitals and schools • Helping profession o Applied anthropology is devoted to assisting local people o Speak up for the disenfranchised • Policy o Anthropologists protect local people from harmful policies and projects that may threaten them • Development anthropology o Branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues in and the cultural dimensions of, economic development • Equity o Increased equity means reduced poverty and a more even distribution of wealth • Fallacies o Overinnovation o Underdifferentation o “Everybody wants progress” • Overinnovation o Trying to achieve too much change • Underdifferentation o Tendency to view “less developed” countries more alike than they are • “Everybody wants progress” o Assuming “everybody wants progress” or thinks about “progress in the same way” • Indigenous o The original inhabitants of particular territories; often descendants of tribespeople who live on as culturally distinct colonized peoples, many of whom aspire to autonomy • Madagascar o People were organized into descent groups prior to indigenous state formations th in the 18 century  Creators of the major precolonial state of Madagascar wove descendant groups into its structure, making members of important groups adviser to the king and thus giving them authority in government o 1960- Madagascar gained independence  New government had policy aimed at increasing the ability of the Malagasy to feed themselves • Malagasy o People of Madagascar • Education anthropology o Research in classrooms, homes and neighborhoods o Views childhood as total cultural creatures whose enculturation and attitudes toward education belongs to a context that includes family and peers • Urban anthropology o Anthropological study of cities and urban life • Biocultural o Combining biological and cultural approaches to a given problem • Medical anthropology o The comparative biocultural study of disease, health problems and health care systems • Illness o A condition of poor health perceived or felt by an individual • Disease o A scientifically identified health threat caused by a known pathogen • Health care systems o Beliefs, customs and specialists concerned with preventing and curing illness • Disease theories o Theorizes that disease is cause my intense emotional experiences • Curer o One who diagnoses and treats illnesses • Scientific medicine o A health care system based on scientific knowledge and procedures • Western medicine o Draws a rigid line between biomedical and psychological causation • Business anthropology o Through studying institutions such as businesses, anthropologists have identified the process of microenculturation, through which people in finite systems learn their specific roles. • Cultural brokers o A person who facilitates the border crossing of another person or group of people from one culture to another culture Lecture Topic 5 • Language o Primary means of human communication, spoken and written • Capacity to use language vs capacity to create language o Use language  Allows humans to: • Conjure up elaborate images • Discuss past and future • Share experiences with others • Benefit from others experiences o Create language  Transmitted through learning as a apart of enculturation • Babies try to imitate peoples words/ mouth movements  Based on arbitrary learned associations between words and the things they represent • Call systems o Communication systems of non human primates o Limited number of sounds that are produced in response to specific stimuli o Automatic and cannot be combined  Does not need to be learned like language  Need to choose which call to use if two situations arise at the same time • Language vs call systems
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