Cultural Anthropology Final Exam review.docx

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APG 203
Professor Garcia- Quijano

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Cultural Anthropology Final Exam review The rest of lecture topic 6 • Burakumin o Japanese outcasts that are physically and genetically indistinguishable from other Japanese people o Many pass (and marry) non Burakumin Japanese but a deceptive marriage can end in divorce if identity is discovered o Perceived as standing apart from majority Japanese o Live in separate neighborhoods o Origin lies in historical system of stratification; the Burakumin stand beneath all the other classes and did the dirty work of animal slaughter and disposal of the deceased • Class stratified o Class structured with differences in wealth, prestige and power • Nation-state o An autonomous political entity; a country • Nationalities o Groups that now have, or wish to have or regain, autonomous political status • Nation o A society sharing a language, history, religion, territory, ancestry and kinship • State o A stratified society with a formal central government • Colonialism o Long term foreign domination of a territory and its people o Often erected boundaries that corresponded poorly with preexisting cultural divisions • “Imagined communities” o Benedict Anderson o Nations are imagined, not real  Connection to entire nation not possible, yet feeling of connection in strong (i.e a soldier would die for his/her “nation”)  Recent phenomena  Language and print played crucial role in developing national consciousness • Assimilation o When a minority adopts the patterns and norms of a host culture  Incorporates into the dominant culture to the degree that it no longer exists as a separate • Plural society o Society with economically interdependent ethnic groups • Multiculturalism o The view of cultural diversity as being valuable and worth maintaining • Ethnic identity o The extent to which one identifies with a particular ethnic group(s) • Ethnic conflict o Conflict between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism • Prejudice o Devaluing a group because of its assumed behavior, values, capabilities or attributes • Discrimination o Policies and practices that harm a group and its members • De facto o Practiced but not legally sanctioned • De jure o Part of the law • Stereotypes o Fixed ideas about what the members of a group are like • Genocide o Deliberate elimination of a group • Ethnocide o Attempt to destroy cultures of certain ethnic groups • Ethnic expulsion o Aims at removing from a country groups that are culturally different • Cultural colonialism o Internal domination by one group and its culture or ideology over others • Refugees o People who are forced or who have chosen to flee a country Lecture Topic 7 • Human adaptive strategies o Means of making a living; production system • Yehudi Cohen’s adaptive strategies typology o Based on correlation between economies and social features o Foraging o Horticulture o Agriculture o Pastorialism o Industrialism • Foraging o Relies on nature to make a living  Rely on natural resources for subsistence rather than controlling plant and animal reproduction o Mobility is a typical characteristic of foraging societies o Foragers make social distinctions based on age • Hunters-gatherers o Also known as in foragers • Pastoralism o Cultivation using domesticated animals  Make direct use for their food (meat, blood, milk) unlike the Plains Indians that used them for hunting for other food • Food production o The cultivation of plants and the domestication of animals • Horticulture o Non industrial plant cultivation with fallowing • Correlation o Association or co-variation between two or more variables • Correlates of adaptive strategies o Features or variables that tend to vary with the adaptive strategies • Band o Small group of fewer or close to 100 people related by kinship or marriage • Egalitarian o People tend to be of equal power in relationship to one another (adults, not parents to children) • Seasonal rounds o Annual pattern followed for food production • Fission-fusion (splits-reunions) o Society in which the size and composition of the social group change as time passes • Mobility o Foragers use mobility to survive • Exogamous o Having a partner outside one’s own group • Cultivation o Development of land to grow plants • Domestication o When humans intervene in the reproduction of plants or animals • Domesticates o An animal used as a pet or for produce • Horticulture o Cultivation that makes none intensive use of factors (or means) of production o Uses simple tools and human labor o Field not permanently cultivated • Slash-and-burn o Cutting down and burning an area of woods for growing • Fallow o Land left uncultivated for a per
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