BIO 105 Final: BIO 105 FINAL- relationships of living things- week 13 - tuesday

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Biological Sciences
BIO 105
Reuben Macfarlan

BIO 105 FINAL EXAM Relationships of Living Things 1. Tree of Life • all species come from preexisting species • all species trace their common ancestry to ancestors 2. Taxonomy • original approach to describing relationships among organisms was based on characteristics shared by organisms • more shared characteristics=more closely related • kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus • problems: • species change over time • sometimes difficult to distinguish between closely related species • often large variation within a single species 3. Evolution • Charles Darwin • Consequences of evolution mingling with taxonomy: • species not fixed • species share characteristics because they have common ancestors and common genes • new type of classification required 4. Phylogenetics • grouping of species into kingdom, phylum, class, order, family genus on an evolutionary basis • reflects shared characteristics: structures, forms and traits — based on shared genes • also reflects fossil record • also reflects genetic similarities • ribosomal DNA (rRNA) used as a basis for examining relationships among organisms: • we pick a specific gene common to life and sequence it, look for variations in the gene and infer differences based on that • more similar the rRNA, more closely related the organisms • In addition to rRNA PCR: • DNA sequencing and micro-satellites are used to compare multiple organisms at the same time and illustrate relationships between organisms 3 Fundamental Lineages of Living Things (Domains): 1. Bacteria 2. Archaea 3. Eukarya Phylogenetics represents the progression of evolution of organisms
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