business 110 study guide to midterm

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University of Rhode Island
BUS 110

Page Vocabulary Definition an ongoing process of social, political and 4 Digital Revolution economic change brought about by digital technology the process of converting text, numbers, 5 Digitization sound, photos and video into data that can be processed by digital devices during World War II for breaking codes and 6 First Digital Computers? calculating missile trajectories Data Processing based on an input-processing-output cycle 7 Personal Computing characterized by small, standalone computers powered by local software Local Software refers to any software that is installed on a computer’s hard drive group of computers linked together to share 8 Computer Network data and resources a global computer network originally developed as a military project and was then Internet handed over to the National Science Foundation for research and academic use (short for World Wide Web) is a collection Web of linked documents, graphics and sounds that can be accessed over the internet a multipurpose device that accepts input, processes data, stores data and produces 14 Computer output, all according to a series of stored instructions 15 Input whatever is typed, submitted or transmitted to a computer system Output the result produced by a computer Data the symbols that represent facts, objects and ideas Processing when computers manipulate data Central Processing Unit (CPU) where most processing takes place Page Vocabulary Definition an electronic component that can be Microprocessor programmed to perform tasks based on data it receives an area of the computer that Memory TEMPORARILY holds data waiting to be processed area where data can be left on a permanent Storage basis when it is not immediately needed for processing Computer Program series of instructions that tells a computer how to carry out processing tasks Software sets up a computer to so a specific task 16 Stored Program a series of instructions for a computing task can be loaded into a computer’s memory a set of computer programs that helps a Application Software person carry out a task what software applications are sometimes Apps referred to, especially in the context of handheld devices System Software helps the computer system monitor itself in order to function efficiently Operating System (OS) master controller for all the activities that take place within a computer a microprocessor-based computing device 17 Personal Computer deigned to meet the computing needs of an individual Video Game Console a computer, but as a dedicated game device a large and expensive computer capable of 19 Mainframe Computer simultaneously processing data for hundreds or thousands of users Supercomputer one of the fastest computers in the world Page Vocabulary Definition a problem that requires massive amounts of Compute-Intensive data to be processed using complex mathematical calculations 20 Microcontroller a special-purpose microprocessor that is built into the machine it controls data is the symbols that represent people, events, things and ideas. 22 Difference between data and data becomes information when it is information presented in a format that people can understand and use. Data Representation the form in which data is stored, processed and transmitted text, numbers, graphics, sound and video Digital Data that have been converted into discrete digits such as 0s and 1s Analog Data represented using an infinite scale of values 26 Bit one binary digit Byte 8 bits Kilobit 1,024 bits Kilobyte 1,024 bytes Megabit 1,048,576 bits Megabyte 1,048,576 bytes Gigabit 1 billion bits Gigabyte 1 billion bytes a super-thin slice of semiconducting material 27 Integrated Circuit (IC) packed with microscopic circuit elements substances with properties between those of Semiconducting Materials a conductor and an insulator a DIP has two rows of pins that connect the DIP IC circuitry to a circuit board Page Vocabulary Definition a PGA is a square chip package with pins PGA arranged in concentric squares, typically used for microprocessors 28 System Board houses all essential chips and provides connecting circuitry between them use a limited set of command words such as Print, If, Write, Display and Get to form 29 Programming Language sentence-like statements designed as step- by-step directives for the processor chip. C, BASIC, COBOL or Java the human-readable version of a program Source Code created in a high-level language by a programmer converts all the statements in a program in a 30 Compiler single batch Object Code resulting collection of instructions converts and executes one statement at a Interpreter time while the program is running Instruction Set collection of preprogrammed activities Machine Language list of codes for a microprocessor’s instruction set Machine Code a set of machine language instructions for a program a command word for an operation such as 31 Op Code (Operation Code) add, compare or jump for an instruction specifies the data or the Operand address of the data, for the operation the part of the microprocessor that performs ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) arithmetic operations, such as addition and subtraction Registers holds data that is being processed Control Unit fetches each instruction Page Vocabulary Definition any method that confirms a person’s identity 34 Authentication Protocol using something the person knows, something the person possesses or something the person is Biometrics fingerprint, facial features or a retinal pattern a series of characters - letters and possibly User ID numbers or special symbols - that becomes a person’s unique identifier a series of characters that verifies a user ID Password and guarantees that you are the person you claim to be 36 Identity Theft when someone gains unauthorized access to your personal data and uses it illegally helps hackers guess your password by stepping through a dictionary containing Dictionary Attack thousands of the most commonly used passwords also uses password-cracking software but its 37 Brute Force Attack range is much more extensive than the dictionary attack Sniffing intercepts information sent out over computer networks a hacker poses as a legitimate representative of an official organization in order to Phishing persuade you to disclose highly confidential information Keylogger software that secretly records a user’s keystrokes and sends information to a hacker fits on a desk and runs on power from an 56 Desktop Computer electrical wall outlet designates input, output and storage Peripheral Device equipment that might be added to a computer system to enhance its functionality Page Vocabulary Definition provides plenty of space for gamers and 58 Tower Case “modders” who want to enhance their machines by adding storage devices, lighted power cables or accelerated graphics cards the circuitry is incorporated in the back of All-in-One Computer flat screen panel a small, lightweight personal computer with input, output, storage and proce
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