Exam 2 Notes.docx

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KIN 275
Darren Beck

Exam 2 Notes What is cardiovascular disease? Disease of heart and blood vessels What are some CVD risk factors that can Tobacco use and exposure to ETS be changed? Hypertension Physical inactivity Obesity Diabetes High triglyceride levels Psychological and social factors Alcohol/drug use What is the “bad” cholesterol? LDL (low-density lipoprotein) Very sticky and excess is deposited in arterial walls What is the “good” cholesterol? HDL (high-density lipoprotein) Shuttle unused cholesterol back to liver for recycling What is the worst type of fat that affects Visceral fat the organs? What are the ranges for triglyceride Less than 150 Normal levels? 150-199 Borderline high 200-499 High 500-more Very High What are some unchangeable CVD risk Family history/heredity factors? Aging Being male (higher risk) Ethnicity (African Americans high risk) What are some risk factors under study? C-reactive protein Nitric oxide Antioxidants Small, dense LDL particles Infectious agents What is Metabolic syndrome? Abdominal obesity High blood pressure (≥130/85) High triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL) Low HDL cholesterol Insulin resistance (glucose ≥100 mg/dL) What do women underestimate as far as They don’t think their risk is very CVD? relevant When does CVD risk increase for After menopause women? When women have a heart attack, what Any signs of chest pain are they more likely to go without? What are major forms of CVD? Hypertension Atherosclerosis Heart disease Stroke congestive heart failure What is atherosclerosis? Arteries are narrowed by plaques What do blockages in the coronary Heart attack arteries lead to? What do blockages in the brain lead to? Stroke 10/18/13 What is angina pectoris? Heart muscle doesn’t receive enough blood causing severe chest pain Where does the heart muscle receive its 2 major coronary arteries blood supply? How large can blood vessels dilate 5-6 times greater during exercise? How is heart disease diagnosed? Exercise stress test MRI, echocardiogram, angiogram How do you treat heart disease? Lifestyle change Low dose aspirin therapy Prescription meds Balloon angioplasty Coronary bypass surgery What is CABG? Coronary Artery Bypass Graft What is congestive heart failure (CHF)? Condition from heart’s inability to pump out all the blood that returns to it Blood backs up in the veins leading to the heart How is CHF caused? High blood pressure, heart attack, atherosclerosis, birth defects, rheumatic fever What does the heart do with CHF? Increases its size but not efficiency 10/25/13 How do we protect ourselves against Managing blood pressure CVD? Manage cholesterol levels Learn to handle stress and anger What does an EKG do? Records electrical impulses that stimulate the heart muscle What does EKG stand for? Electrocardiogram What is the P wave? Shows atrial depolarization The atria contracts What is the QRS wave? Ventricular depolarization Ventricle contracts What is the T wave? Ventricular repolarization When heart is in diastole Why do we use a 12 lead EKG? Gives 12 different views of the same cardiac cycle Where does the contraction begin? Sinoatrial (SA) node How is heart rhythm determined? By the peaks of the R Measure distance in between peaks What does the P to Q distance Conduction between atria to ventricles determine? How long it takes What happens when a QRS complex is We know the signal went through to less than .01 sec.? contract the left ventricle quickly What does the QT distance mean? How long it takes the heart to contract and reach full relaxation How many electrodes does it take for a 10 12 lead EKG? What is a heart disease indicator? Stress test 10/28/13 What is a stroke? Impeded blood supply to brain resulting in destruction of brain cells What is an ischemic stroke? Caused by blockage What is a hemorrhagic stroke? Caused by ruptured blood vessel How do you treat a stroke? Clot-dissolving and anti-hypertensive drugs What is responsible fo
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