KIN 382 Exam 1 (Personality and Motivation) Notes

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KIN 382
Bryan Blissmer

KIN 382 Epistemology o How we know things 1. Common sense a. Social philosophy – just know it 2. Practical experience a. Social empiricism – here’s some data 3. Scientific knowledge a. Social analysis – here’s an experiment Scientific Knowledge o Systematic, controlled, empirical (unbiased) investigation of relationships among phenomenon. o Scientific method dominates (where possible) in this class Understanding Professional Practice Knowledge o What we learn through experience, using many methods of knowing Sport and Exercise Psychology as an art and a Science o The science of coaching, teaching, or leadership focuses on using general scientific principles o The art of coaching, teaching, or leadership is knowing when and how to individualize these general principles. Contextual intelligence is critical. Personality What is Personality? - Sum total of an individual’s characteristics which make him or her unique - Each person is like all others, like some others, and like no others Characteristics of Personality - Relatively stable - Made up of traits/dispositions o Likely to respond in the same way across most situations What makes up Personality? - Hollander’s conceptualization o Psychological core  The most basic and deepest attitudes, values, interests, motives, and self- worth of a person—the “real” person  Ex. A persons religious values o Typical Responses  The way one typically adjusts or responds to the environment  Ex. Being happy-go-lucky, shy o Role-Related Behavior  How one acts in a particular social situation  Ex. Behavior as a student, parent or friend Approaches to Understanding Personality - Psychodynamic Approach o Behavior is determined by several unconscious, constantly changing factors that often conflict with one another. o Emphasis is placed on understanding the person as a whole, rather than identifying isolated traits. - Trait Approach o Behavior is determined by relatively stable traits that are fundamental units of personality. These traits predispose one to act in a certain way, regardless of the situation. - Situational Approach o Behavior is determined largely by the situation or environment - Interactional Approach o Behavior is determined by both the person and the situation factors as well as by their interaction. - Phenomenological Approach o Behavior is best determined by accounting for situation and personal characteristics o A person’s “understanding” and “interpretation” of one’s self and environment are critical. Measuring Personality - Traits and States o Measure both traits and states. o A trait is a typical style of behavior. o A state is the situations effects on behavior—a “right now” feeling that can change from moment to moment. - General versus Situation-specific (Sport specific) measures o Situation-specific trait tests predict behavior more accurately than do general trait measures. o The more specific, the better the predictions we get. Sport Personality Measures - Athletic Motivation Inventory o Olgilvie and Tutko o Assessed a variety of traits o No reliability and validity information  Critiqued by field  Poor predictor in hockey players - Troutwine Athletic Profile o No reliability and validity information o Becoming widely used for both player and coach reports  Numerous NFL teams use at the combines  NFL coach Bill Belichick said it best: “When I read a TAP (Coach Report) it is like I wrote it after coaching the guy for five years.”  Success of Peyton Manning Motivation - The direction and intensity of one’s effort - Direction – approach vs. avoidance Common Definitional Approaches - Trait approach o Motivated people o You’ve either got it or you don’t - External Influence o Extrinsic motivation o Doing it for something/somebody - Interactional Approach o Person * Environment = Behavior Five Guidelines for Building Motivation - Guideline 1 o Both situations and traits motivate people o As a coach/teacher you need to be aware of personalities and how that interacts with the structure/environment you create - Guideline 2 o People have multiple motives for involvement. Understand why people participate in physical activity/sport o Motives change over time - Guideline 3 o Change the environment to enhance motivation  Provide both competitive and recreational opportunities  Provide for multiple motives and opportunities  Adjust to individuals within groups - Guideline 4 o Leaders influence motivation directly and indirectly  Remember that it’s not only the rewards and punishments that you directly hand out, but also how you act that influence motivation - Guideline 5 o Use behavior modification to change undesirable participant motives  We’ll learn some of these later  Key is to recognize when people have inappropriate motivations Achievement Motivation - An individual’s orientation to strive for task success, persist in the face of failure, and experience pride in their accomplishments - “Desire to accomplish something difficult. To rival and surpass others.” - Historically viewed as a personality trait Atkinson’s Model of Achievement Motivation - Interactional approach o 2 personality factors interacting with the environment  Person factor  Situational Factor - Person characteristics: o Motive to approach success (MS)  Capacity to experience pride and satisfaction in a person’s accomplishments o Motive to avoid failure (MAF
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