PSY 335 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Implicit-Association Test, Fundamental Attribution Error, Availability Heuristic

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PSY 335
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 2 The Self in a Social World
Lecture September 17, 2015 (finished September 22, 2015)
Spotlights and Illusions
Spotlight effect when we think people are paying more attention to them than they really are
Illusion of Transparency the belief that our concealed emotions are easily perceived by others
The Self
Self-Concept
Self-Schema Beliefs about the self that organize and guide the process of self-relevant information
Schema mental template
Possible Selves
Self and Culture
Individualism
Independent self
Oe’s ow persoal idetity
Collectivism
Interdependent self
Tend to think about self in terms of group identities
Growing Individualism
Culture and Cognition
Behavior and Feelings
Explaining Behavior
Predicting Behavior
Poor insight into compliance, relationship durability, etc.
Predicting Feelings
Difficulty in predicting intensity and duration of future emotions
Impact Bias: overestimating the lasting effect of emotion-causing events
Wisdom and Illusion of Self-Analysis
Often shockingly unaware of much that goes on in our heads
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Dual attitudes: differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes
towards the same object
Self-Esteem
But… aordig to Bauiester ad others
Strong assertions of importance of self-esteem, largely based on correlational research led to
increased academic scrutiny
Which found modest (at best) relations between self-esteem and
o Academic performance in high school students
o Interpersonal skills in adults
o Alcohol and drug abuse
o Violence/bullying
Perceived Self-Control
“elf’s eergy
o Self-control is like a muscle
Self-efficacy
o Sense of competency and effectiveness
Locus of Control
o Outcomes internally or externally controlled
Learned Helplessness vs. Self-determination
o Resignation over time to consistent lack of control
o But too much choice is not a good thing
Self-Serving Bias//Attributions
Self-serving bias: the tendency to perceive oneselves favorably
Better than average??
o Couples and housework, childcare, etc.
o Bias lid spot
Unrealistic optimism
False consensus and uniqueness
Self-Presentation
Self-enhancement
o Basking in Reflected Glory (BIRG)
Self-Handicapping
o With o attept there a e o failure, with o failure o huiliatio Willia Jaes
Impression Management
o Presenting a positive image of the self to others
o i.e. social media
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