Psych 113 final review!!

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PSY 113
Janan Wyatt

Brigette Marold 11/30/12 Psych 113 Janan Wyatt Final Exam Review Sheet ♥ Chapter 1: • Psychology: Scientific study of behavior and mental processes • Physiology: Study of functions of the living organism and its parts • Nature View: Humans enter the world with an inborn store of knowledge and understanding of reality • Nurture View: Knowledge is acquired through experiences and interactions in the world • Associationist Psychology: The view that the mine is filled with ideas that enter the mind by way of senses and then become associated through principles such as similarity and contrast • Introspection: Observing and recording the nature of one’s own perceptions, thoughts and feelings • Structuralism: Analysis of mental structures; introduced by Titchener • Functionalism: Studying how the mind works to enable an organism to adapt and function in its own environment; introduced by William James • Behaviorism: Founded by John B. Watson; defined psychology as the study of behavior and limited the data of psychology to observable activities. In it classical form it was more restrictive than the contemporary behavioral viewpoint in psychology • Gestault Psychology: Psychologists were primarily interested in perception and believed perceptual experiences depend on the patterns formed by stimuli and on the organization of experience • Psychoanalysis: Theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy originated by Freud • Psychological perspective: An approach to looking at topics in psychology • Eclectic Approach: An approach to looking at topics within psychology using multiple psychological perspectives • Biological Perspective: Approach to psychology that tries to explain behavior in terms of electrical and chemical events taking place inside the body, particularly the brain and nervous system • Behavioral Perspective: Focuses on observable stimuli and responses and regards nearly all behavior as a result of conditioning and reinforcement • Cognitive Perspective: Concerned with mental processes such as perceiving, remembering, reasoning, deciding, and problem solving • Psychoanalytic Perspective: Behavior stems from unconscious processes meaning beliefs, fears, and desires that a person is unaware of but nonetheless influence behavior • Subjectivist Perspective: Human behavior is a function of the perceived world, not objective world • Reductionism: Involves reducing psychological notions to biological ones • Biological psychologists: Look for the relationships between biological processes and behavior • Cognitive Psychologists: Concerned with people’s internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, language, and thought • Developmental Psychologists: Concerned with human development and the factors that shape behavior from birth to old age. They might study a specific ability such as how language develops in children or a particular period in life • Social Psychologists: Interested in how people perceive and interpret their social world and how their beliefs, emotions and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of others. Also concerned with the behavior of groups and social relationships between and among people. • Personality Psychologists: Study the thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that define an individual’s personal style of interacting with the world. Also interested in differences between individuals and attempt to synthesize all the psychological processes into and integrated account of the total person • Clinical Psychologists: Apply psychological principles to the diagnosis and treatment of emotional and behavior problems, including mental illness, drug addiction, and marital and family conflict • Counseling Psychologists: Perform many functions of clinical psychologists, but on a smaller scale and frequently work with high school and college students • School Psychologists: Work with children to evaluate learning and emotional problems • Educational Psychologists: Specialize in learning and teaching • Organizational Psychologists: Concerned with selecting people who are most suitable for jobs or designing structures that facilitate collaboration and teamwork • Engineering Psychologists: Try to improve the relationship between people and machines • Cognitive Neuroscience: Attempts to learn how mental activities are executed to the brain • Affective Neuroscience: Used to discover how emotional phenomena are executed in the brain • Social Neuroscience: Used to discover how stereotyping, attitudes, person perception, and self knowledge are executed in the brain • Evolutionary Psychology: Concerned with the biological origins of psychological mechanisms • Cultural Psychology: Concerned with how the culture in which an individual lives- its traditions, language and world view-influences that persons mental representations and psychological processes • Positive Psychology: Targets psychological phenomena at levels ranging from the study of positive subjective experiences such as happiness and optimism, to the study of positive personality traits such and courage and wisdom and the study of positive institutions- social structures that might cultivate civility and responsible citizenship • Independent Variable: Under the complete control of the experimenter, who creates it and controls its variation • Dependent Variable: A variable that is hypothesized to depend on the value of the independent variable • Positive Correlation: Values of variables increase or decrease together • Negative Correlation: One value increases the other decreases • Correlation Coefficients: -1.00 < r < +1.00 o Never goes over 1 • Case Studies o 1 person o Interaction is allowed o History collected (medical etc) • Problem w/ case studies o Tend to be retrospective o Uncontrolled variables o Unsure about cause and effect o Results cannot be generalized ♥ Chapter 2 • C.N.S o 2 parts- directs mental and basic life processes o Spinal cord sends info to and from brain and P.N.S and controls reflexes o Brain directs mental processes and maintains basic life functions • P.N.S o 2 parts- Carries info to and from the C.N.S o Afferent- Carry signals from the body to C.N.S ♥ Sensory skills o Efferent- Carry signals from the C.N.S to body ♥ Motor skills • Somatic Nervous System o Voluntary o Conveys sensory info to the C.N.S and sends motor messages to muscles • Autonomic Nervous System o Involuntary o Controls basic life functions breathing, heartbeat, digestion, response to stress o Sympathetic ♥ Arouses body- respond to threat o Parasympathetic ♥ Calms body to conserve energy and restore equilibrium- rest period • The Brain o 4 lobes ♥ Frontal- reasoning , motor control, speech production ♥ Temporal- hearing, language comprehension and memory ♥ Occipital- vision and visual perception ♥ Parietal- distance judgment, sensory, bodily sensations o Brocas area: ♥ frontal lobe ♥ speech production ♥ being able to write and understand written words o Wernickes area: ♥ temporal lobe ♥ controls language comprehension o Corpus colosumconnects left and right hemisphere o Hindbrain- lower structures o Midbrain- Helps coordinate movement patterns, sleep and arousal o Forebrain- Higher level structures and functions o Brainstem area houses parts of all 3 and regulates reflexes o Hindbrain ♥ Pons: breathing, sleep, movement ♥ Cerebellum: balance, fine muscle movement ♥ Medulla: vital life functions o Midbrain ♥ Orients eye and body movements to visual and auditory stimuli ♥ Work with pons to help sleep ♥ Involved with dopamine o Forebrain ♥ Largest and most prominent • Thalamus: sensory relay • Hypothalamus: hunger, thirst, sex, aggression and hormones • Limbic system: interconnected group of structures o Hippocampus: memory o Amygdala: emotion • Cerebral cortex: complex behaviors and high mental processes o Divided into four lobes (frontal, occipital, parietal, temporal) o Split Brain Research ♥ Cutting the corpus colosum to separate brain ♥ Provides info on what functions the 2 hemispheres have ♥ Left: verbal and analytical functions, controls right side ♥ Right: nonverbal skills, controls left side • Neurons o Basic unit of nervous system o Transmits impulses to other neuron or muscles o Parts of a neuron: ♥ Dendrites: receive neural impulses from other neurons ♥ Axon: Tube that extends from soma (cell body) to terminal buttons and transmits messages to other neurons ♥ Myelin Sheath: A sheet of cells wrapped around the axon, protects nerves ♥ Terminal Buttons: Small branches at end of axon; sends signals ♥ Synapse: Transmit info between neuron • Action Potential: electrochemical impulse that travels from dendritic area to end of axon • Neurotransmitters: o Acetylcholine: ♥ Involved in memory and attention; decreases associated with Alzheimer’s Disease ♥ Transmits signals between nerve and muscle o Norepinephrine: ♥ Increased by psycho-timulants ♥ Low levels contribute to depression o Dopamine: ♥ Mediates the effects of natural rewards and drugs of abuse o Serotonin: ♥ Important in mood and social behavior ♥ Drugs that alleviate depression and anxiety increase serotonin o Glutamate: ♥ Major excitatory neurotransmitter ♥ Involved in learning and memory o GABA ♥ Major inhibitory neurotransmitter ♥ Drugs that alleviate anxiety enhance GABA • Aphasia: loss of language/processing ability after damage o Expressive: damage to Brocas area o Receptive: damage to Werneckes area o Conduction: Brocas area disconnected from Werneckes area; difficulty repeating what was just said • Sensory neurons: o Transmit impulses received by receptors to the C.N.S • Motor neurons: o Carry outgoing signals from the C.N.S to the muscles and glands • Interneurons o Connect sensory and motor neurons • Chromosomal Abnormalities o Klinefelter’s Syndrome: Active in males; caused by an extra X chromosome; creates womanly features o Turner’s Syndrome: Females who lack an X chromosome; causes underdeveloped and infertile ovaries, young appearance ♥ Chapter 3 • Piaget Stages of Cognitive Development o Sensimotor period, 0-2 yrs ♥ Mental representation (object permeance) develops o Preoperation period, 2-7 yrs ♥ 2-4: Begin to understand language and use symbols ♥ 4-7: Begin to make intuitive guesses about world; cannot differentiate between imagination and reality o Concrete operations, 7-11 yrs ♥ Uses simple logic and perform simple mental operations (only on real concrete objects) o Formal operations, 12+ yrs ♥ Fully logical ♥ Capable of abstract thought, deductive reasoning and hypothesis testing o Criticism to Piaget’s theory: ♥ Testing is motor and language dependent ♥ Underestimates abilities children • Kohlberg Stages of Moral Development o Pre-conventional, 0-7 yrs ♥ Morality of self interest- avoiding punishment or gaining concrete rewards o Conventional, 8-13 yrs ♥ Morality of law and social rules; gaining approval or avoiding disapproval o Post-conventional, 13+ yrs ♥ Morality of abstract principles; complying with agreed upon rights or personal ethical principles • Attachment styles o Securely attached: A baby seeks to interact with caregiver upon reunion o Insecurely attached-avoidant: Babies avoid interaction upon reunion o Insecurely attached- ambivalent: A baby shows resistance to mother upon reunion o Motor development o o • Erik Erikson; Stages of Psychosocial Development o Stage 1: Trust vs Mistrust (1 yr) ♥ o Stage 2: Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt (2 ndyr) ♥ “Can I Control my own Behavior?” o Stage 3: Initiative vs guilt (3-5 yrs) ♥ “Can I Become Independent of My Parents?” o Stage 4: Competence vs Inferiority (6yrs to puberty) ♥ “Can I master important skills?” o Stage 5: Identity vs Role Confusion (Adolescence) ♥ “Who Am I? What Do I Think, Feel, Believe?” o Stage 6: Intimacy vs Isolation (Young adulthood) ♥ “Can I Develop A Warm, Sharing Relationship with Someone?” o Stage 7: Generativity vs Stagnation (Middle adulthood) ♥ “What Can I Offer Succeeding Generations?” o Stage 8: Integrity vs Despair (Late adulthood) ♥ “Have I Found Contentment Through my Work and Play?” ♥ Chapter 4 • Absolute threshold: o Minimum magnitude of a stimulus that can be reliably discriminated from no stimulus at all • Difference threshold: o Minimum difference in stimulus magnitude necessary to tell two stimuli apart • Signal Detection Theory: o How we make decisions on uncertain stimuli o Detecting weak signals in noise o Sensitivity influenced by: ♥ Internal noise ♥ Stimulus intensity • Vision System: o Vision Story: 1. Light enters through the cornea which helps focus incoming light rays 2. Light passes through the pupil which dilates or constricts in response to light intensity 3. Lens focuses incoming light into an image on the retina which is located on the back of your eye. Lens reverses the image when projected on the retina the brain reverses the object into the image we perceive 4. In the retina, light waves are detected and transduced into neural signals by receptor cells 5. Fovea is responsible for sharpest vision; tiny pit in eye filled with cones 6. Rods and cones generate neural signals that send messages to the brain via optic nerve- axons of ganglion cells o Color theories ♥ Trichromatic theory: Theory of color perception that states there are three basic color receptors (cones); a “red” receptor, a “green” receptor and a “blue” receptor. The theory explains color blindness by the absence of one or more receptor types ♥ Opponent Process Theory • 3 organized systems o Red green o Blue yellow o Black white ♥ Combined color theory • 3 cones in retina with its own type of photo pigment o One sensitive to red, green, blue • There are cells in thalamus that respond to colors in opponent fashion ♥ Dual Process Theory • Color is processed on a trichromatic fashion at level of retina and in an opponent fashion at level of optic nerve and thalamus • Sensory adaptation- decreasing responsiveness to stimulus over time ♥ Chapter 5 • Gestault Principles: o Proximity: ♥ Objects that are closer together will be seen as belonging together (grouped) o Similarity: ♥ Objects that share visual characteristics (size, shape, color) will be grouped together o Continuity ♥ Points that are connected by straight or curving lines are seen in a way that follows the smoothest path. Rather than seeing separate lines and angles, lines are seen as belonging together o Closure ♥ Things are grouped together if they seem to complete some entity. Our brains often ignore contradictory information and fill in gaps in information o Common Region ♥ Visual items situated together in bordered regions are perceived as belonging together o Connectedness ♥ Objects positioned together or moving together will be perceived as belonging to the same group • Depth cues o Monocular ♥ Relative size: If an image contains an array of similar objects that differ in size, the viewer interprets the smaller objects as being farther away ♥ Interposition: If one object is positioned so that it obstructs the view of the other, the viewer perceives the overlapping object as being nearer ♥ Relative height: Among similar objects, those that appear closer to the horizon are perceived as being farther away ♥ Perspective: When parallel lines appear to converge in the image, they are perceived as vanishing in the distance ♥ Shading and shadows: Whenever a surface in a scene is blocked from receiving direct light, a shadow is cast. If that shadow falls on a part of the same object that is blocking the light, it is called an attached shadow or simply shading. If it falls on another surface that does not belong to the object casting the shadow, it is called a cast shadow. ♥ Motion: Extremely distant objects appear not to move at all. o Binocular ♥ Binocular disparity: Refers to the difference in the views seen by each eye o Bottom-up process- Driven solely by the input (sensory data) o Top-down process- Driven by a person’s knowledge, experience, attention and expectations ♥ Chapter 7 • Classical Conditioning (“Pavlovian” Conditioning): learning process in which a previous neural stimulus becomes associated with another stimulus through repeated pairing with that stimulus o Unconditioned stimulus- A stimulus that automatically elicits a response without prior conditioning o Conditioned stimulus- Previously neural stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response through association with an unconditioned stimulus o Neutral stimulus- Any stimulus that does not naturally elicit the conditioned response o Unconditioned response- Response given originally to unconditioned stimulus, used as the basis for establishing a conditioned response to a previously neutral stimulus
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