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BISC 104Lxg
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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How the Body Works Introduction
All living things
-Respond to their environment
-Maintain homeostasis
homeostasis is the relatively constant and self-correcting internal environment of a
living organism.
Homeo = unchanging, stasis = standing
homeostasis means staying the same
Humans function properly only within narrow ranges of temperature and
chemistry
Homeostasis is controlled by both conscious and unconscious responses
Ex.: Maintain body warmth by unconscious blood vessel constriction and by
consciously selecting appropriate clothing
The Scientific Method
Observations and generalization
Formulating a hypothesis
Predication
Experiments
Data analysis and interpretation
Modifying the hypothesis as necessary and repeat
11 Organ Systems
Each system made of many organs, organs made up of tissues, each tissue made up
of cells. Cells measured in micrometers.
Organelles - mitochondria, etc. make up cells
Organ systems - reproductive, cardiovascular, skeletal, respiratory, endocrine, skin,
muscular
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Inductive reasoning - Involves the accumulation of facts through observation until
finally there are enough facts to draw a conclusion or develop a testable
hypothesis
Deductive reasoning - Involves making a general statement, often in the format of
an “if-then” statement, then drawing more specific conclusions from it
In deductive reasoning, a series of observations leads to a general statement that
often sets the stage for further experimentation.
Clinical Trials
Phase 1: Test safety, 20-80 healthy people.
Phase 2: Test both safety and effectiveness, 100-300 patients.
Phase 3: Like phase 2, but also look for uncommon adverse reactions, 1000-4000
patients
Approval for marketing, patent life ~ 20 years
Phase 4: Long term effectiveness and rare side effects, may recall the drugs
Statistical methods; placebo effects; proper controls; ethical issues
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