ADV 319 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Gender Bender, Penis Envy, Gender Identity

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30 Nov 2017
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Exam 2 Study Guide- Chp. 6-10
Quizlet link: https://quizlet.com/_3x92vn
Self
Video: self-concept development
○ Children- younger list possessions and what they have. They are more concrete
and say things such as “I am tall, I have blue eyes”; Middle childhood list group
membership and who they are, characteristics and say things such as “I have a
brother, I am nine years old, I am in 5th grade”. Then they start to say actual
characteristics of themselves (nice, like to help people, smart, creative…)
Collective self
○ A process of self-definition whereby an individual’s identity is largely derived from
his or her group memberships (social groups)
○ Many Eastern cultures stress the importance of this
○ Western countries focus on the individual

self
Self-concept, structure/parts
○ Self-concept: how you know and understand yourself, it develops as we develop
Self-concept - The beliefs a person holds about his or her own attributes and
how he or she evaluates the self on these qualities.
○ influences: How you respond to life, decision making, beliefs, attitudes, opinions,
etc
○ 3 parts: self image, self esteem, self efficacy
Structures:
Content: Facial attractiveness vs. mental aptitude
Positivity: Self esteem
Intensity and stability: Overtime
Accuracy: The degree to which one’s self assessment corresponds to reality.
Self Image, roles
○ Self image: how you perceive yourself and how you think that others perceive
you
○ Contains roles, personality, physical characteristics, skills/abilities, occupations,
hobbies
○ Impacted by personal and social norms
Self-esteem
○ Self-esteem: How you feel about yourself
○ Can evolve over time
■ High-self esteem = positive evaluation
■ Low-self esteem =  negative evaluation
○ Global self-esteem: Feelings about “who we are”, very consistent
○ Situational self-esteem: “What we do” fluctuates with events and roles
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○ Red flag if people have a high self esteem or low self esteem across all situations
or if relatively trivial events drastically affect self esteem, as it could indicate
something like depression.
Dove example from lecture on self-esteem
○ “I Wish” Commercial: about physical wishes
■ Global Self-Esteem: “who we are” = constant feelings
■ Situational Self-Esteem: “what we do” = fluctuating feelings
Self efficacy, influences on
○ Self-efficacy: a person’s judgement on being able to perform a particular task
○ It is the “I can” or “I cannot” belief
○ High self-efficacy in one area may not coincide with high self-efficacy in another
area
○ Self-efficacy is specific to the task being attempted
○ Has FOUR main sources of influence:
Mastery
:

successes build efficacy, failures undermine it =
Vicarious
experience
:

“If I see someone who is similar to me fails, I feel
like I will also fail.”
Social
persuasion:
Verbal from others, encouragement like “You can do
it!”
Stress:
Positive mood enhances perceived self efficacy. If you feel like
you can do it, you will perform better.
Nike often appeals to what?
○ self -efficacy “Just Do It”
Social comparison
○ Trying to evaluate appearance by comparison
Ideal and actual/real self
○ Ideal: how one would like to be
○ Actual: more realistic appraisal of qualities we have
○ Products can help us:
■ Reach our ideal self or
■ Be consistent with our actual self
Extended self, levels
○ External object we consider a part of us
■ Individual (top tier): personal possessions
■ Family: residence and furnishings
■ Community: neighborhood and the town one is from
■ Group (low tier): social groups
Embodied cognition, enclothed cognition
○ Embodied: states of the body modifies states of the mind. In other words, our
behaviors and observations of what we do and buy shape our thoughts rather
than vice versa. (ex: how you stand)
○ Enclothed: clothing changes how people behave (ex: subjects who wore the lab
coat displayed enhanced performance on tasks)
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Self consciousness, monitoring
○ Self Consciousness: awareness of self
■ High self-consciousness = more interested in clothing and use more
cosmetics
○ Self Monitoring: attuned to how they present themselves in social environments
■ High self-monitors: study others, self conscious, focus on appearance,
can adapt to different social situations
■ Low self-monitors: oblivious to how others see them and do their own
thing
Multiple selves, roles, examples
○ Achieved Role Identities (freely chosen, freely forfeited)
○ Ascribed Role Identities (gender, racial, ethnic)
○ Tide Commercial: “Dad Mom” He is

a dad, but he chooses

to be a stay-at-home
dad.
● Multi-tasking ads vs. what science says
○ Think about ideal self and actual self when it comes to multitasking
○ Sprint multitask commercial - Sprint cell phone that will help people multitask
○ Hands-free Whopper (Burger King) - Science suggests this might be the outcome
East-West conceptualizations of the self
○ East: emphasis on group identity
○ West: emphasis on individual identity
Identity marketing, “science is a girl thing"
○ Marketing messages that reference identities
■ Identity-referencing: can improve purchase likelihood
○ Messages which try to define an identity
■ Identity-defining: can backfire/reduce likelihood
○ Science girls ad: trying to make science uncomfortably sexy and was defining
Self image Congruence
○ Choose products  that match ourself = purchase makes you feel better
Symbolic interactionism
○ relationships with others shape who we are
○ we interpret our environment through symbols that have shared meaning with
those others
Body image
○ Refers to a consumer's subjective evaluation of his/her physical self- ours differs
from what people around us see..
Beauty ideals internationally, examples for men from video
○ Different societies and cultures have very different and distinct standards of
beauty
○ Men were all different based on the country’s ideal standard
Gender identity, roles, socialization
○ Children learn from role models and modeled behaviors
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Document Summary

A process of self-definition whereby an individual"s identity is largely derived from. Many eastern cultures stress the importance of this. Self-concept: how you know and understand yourself, it develops as we develop. Influences: how you respond to life, decision making, beliefs, attitudes, opinions, 3 parts: self image, self esteem, self efficacy. Structures: how he or she evaluates the self on these qualities. etc. Accuracy: the degree to which one"s self assessment corresponds to reality. Contains roles, personality, physical characteristics, skills/abilities, occupations, What we do fluctuates with events and roles. Red flag if people have a high self esteem or low self esteem across all situations or if relatively trivial events drastically affect self esteem, as it could indicate something like depression. Global self-esteem: who we are = constant feelings. Situational self-esteem: what we do = fluctuating feelings. Self-efficacy: a person"s judgement on being able to perform a particular task. It is the i can or i cannot belief.

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