1/15/2013 2:33:00 PM stufffff 1/15/2013 2:33:00 PM
- Your boss at the nursing home wants you to look into setting up Facebook
page for company.
Mull the idea around.
o What would we use it for?
o Who is our target audience?
You better learn more…
o What is the average age of a Facebook user?
Where to find the answer?
The best resource for questions about online media use
is the Pew Internet and American Life Project at
o Average ago of Facebook user?
First talk internet.
One in five American adults does not use the
internet. (80% of US adults are NOT on internet)
Senior citizens, adults with less than a high
school education, and those living in
households earning less than $20,000 per
year are the least likely adults to have
o What would we hope to gain from the use of Facebook?
different privacy settings
to be used within the nursing home so residents
can communicate with each other and/or staff
to be used so residents can connect to family and
friends outside of the home
to be used by those outside of the home searching
for information about the nursing homes
o How to build traffic or members?
o Any other questions to ask?
Who makes decisions about living in a nursing home?
adult children of the elderly
elderly who don’t need assisted living but want to
be in an “assisted community” in case they need
o Steps for locating, verifying data find the report.
look for exact info you need
check the citations—where’d they get that info?
find the orinigal citation
double-check the numbers,
o Resulting fact?
Of those caring for someone aged 50+, the average age of
family caregivers is between 50 and 64—these are the
people doing the searching for nursing homes.
o Do those people Facebook?
-- so what was all that ^?
How to use research to get your job done.
You would find more, go back to your boss and start a conversation
about whether you would be getting through to the target via the
BOOK – RESEARCH
SOCIETY, SOMETHING & SOMETHING
- CH.1 opens with perceptions
- Always question them
Perceptions are not always trustworthy.
Expectations are not always met.
Assumptions can be wrong.
- research is a tool for overcoming errors in perception, reasoning.
- research leads to data we can rigorously evaluate, share.
- data needs to be:
o gathered methodically through observation or experiment
(including surveys, interviews, etc)
Discovery through research
- your results might confirm what you expected—or not—and might teach
you something entirely new. - A really good video of one Microsoft researcher, Dana Boyd. About 5 years
ago, she set out to explore social networking among teens.
o “Myspace is ghetto”
o kids of color were primarily going to Myspace
o white and Asian teens going to Facebook
o movement from Myspace to Facebook
o teens are going to go where their friends are
her discovery was novel at the time, was indicative…**
Research is a science
- problem oriented
looks for a solution or to understand something
- procedure driven
requires careful planning and execution
based on observation, experiment
we can infer sound, consistent arguments that “make sense”
shared with a network of researchers working to advance knowledge
Model of the scientific method
1. Define the question
2. Locate resources / gather information
3. Form a hypothesis / hypothesis
4. Plan research collection methods
5. Collect data
6. Organize & Analyze data
7. Interpret data & draw conclusions
8. Communicate the results
Applied vs. Basic Research
- applied research is designed to answer practical, often immediate questions.
- basic (pure) research is driven primarily by theory or the desire to build
general knowledge. 1/15/2013 2:33:00 PM
The Decline of “Neighboring”
1. Descriptive Research**
2. Exploratory Research
focuses on what meanings people they give to their actions, what
issues concern them, etc. “What do the people say about this
[EX] How do people perceive race on social networking sites?
this type of research seeks meaning, often qualitatively, from the
social group under study, asks for their input directly.
3. Explanatory Research
seeks to identify causes and effects of social phenomena and to
predict how one phenomenon will change or vary in response to
variation in some other phenomenon. “What impacts or causes this
[EX] Does Internet cause loneliness?
4. Evaluation Research
seeks to determine the effects of programs, policies, or other efforts
to impact social patterns, whether by government agencies, private
nonprofits, or for-profit businesses
[EX] Did this plan to impact X work?
IS IT GOOD RESEARCH?
- 1. Measurement validity
exists when we have measured what we think we did
“did we measure what we think we measured?”
How might we measure loneliness in a survey? o how often do you feel lonely?
o in what situations to you feel lonely?
o how many people do you think care about you? (Martin)
o how lonely do you feel RIGHT NOWWW?
First must think about what loneliness really is.
once we understand it, we can think about measuring it fully.
- 2. Generalizibility
the extent to which our work can inform us about persons, places, or
events that were not directly
can you take results from one sample, and apply it accurately to the
TWO KINDS OF GENERALIZABILITY
o Sample Generalizability
the sample of people you are studying mirrors the
population from which you sampled them
o Cross-population Generalizability
findings from one population exist in another population.
need multiple studies, or to compare results with other
studies or make argument why populations are similar
- 3. Causal Validity (Internal Validity)
key question is whether observed changes can be attributed to your
identified “cause” and not to other possible causes.
this type of validity is only relevant in studies that try to establish a
-- Back to the Scientific Method –
WHAT MAKES A RESEARCH QUESTION GOOD?
2. Important (subjective)
o so to make it more objective, include why it is important, make
o within the context where you are conducting the research
THEORY - defines concepts and relationships among those concepts
- helps ground you in the existing research
- provides the researcher with expectations
- theory of planned behavior : explores what makes people act
expectations of others
- can be empirically tested (not pie in the sky ideas)
- will learn some theories later in semester
APPROACHES TO RESEARCH
- deductive research
starts with theory and then testing its implications with data
expectations are deduced from the theory
o then tested with data that have been collected for this purpose
expectation : hypothesis
a hypothesis proposes specific relationship between two or more
o variables are characteristics or properties that can vary among
or within people
variation in one variable predicts, influences, or causes variation
in the other variable
the variation with influence is the independent variable; its effect
of consequence is the dependent variable
independent variable dependent variable
[EX] advertising exposure is positively related to attitude of the
- inductive research
collect data, then develop theory to explain patterns in the data
begins with the specific data
data used to develop (induce) a general explanation (theory)
you start “in the data” and you build a theory to explain what is
our photovoice project will be inductive
--- a research project can use both strategies --- WHICH IS THE BEST RESEARCH DESIGN?
- cross-sectional : one point in time
- longitudinal : two or more points in time
Who to study?
individuals or groups as units of analysis?
o in most sociological and psychological studies, the units of
analysis are individuals
Institutional review boards (IRB)
set up to make sure that any research that comes out of UT is ethical,
morally sound, and not harming any individually
any government agency, university and research facility has one
reviews all research proposals involving humans or animals
apply ethics standards set by the federal regulations
-- MEDIA RESEARCH –
- media research in this case reers to your research of media coverage
regarding you client, organization, product, etc
- we are interested primarily in media content as it happens
work at an agency, any client you have, you need to know what the
media is saying about the brand, product, etc, in REAL TIME so you
can advise them how to respond CONTENT & REACH