ADV 344K exam 1 notes.docx

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University of Texas at Austin
ADV 344K
Lee Ann Kahlor

1/15/2013 2:33:00 PM stufffff 1/15/2013 2:33:00 PM - Your boss at the nursing home wants you to look into setting up Facebook page for company.  Mull the idea around. o What would we use it for? o Who is our target audience?  You better learn more… o What is the average age of a Facebook user?  Where to find the answer?  The best resource for questions about online media use is the Pew Internet and American Life Project at o Average ago of Facebook user?  First talk internet.  One in five American adults does not use the internet. (80% of US adults are NOT on internet)  Senior citizens, adults with less than a high school education, and those living in households earning less than $20,000 per year are the least likely adults to have internet access. o What would we hope to gain from the use of Facebook?  different privacy settings  to be used within the nursing home so residents can communicate with each other and/or staff  to be used so residents can connect to family and friends outside of the home  to be used by those outside of the home searching for information about the nursing homes o How to build traffic or members? o Any other questions to ask?  Who makes decisions about living in a nursing home?  adult children of the elderly  elderly who don’t need assisted living but want to be in an “assisted community” in case they need something o Steps for locating, verifying data  find the report.  look for exact info you need  check the citations—where’d they get that info?  find the orinigal citation  double-check the numbers, o Resulting fact?  Of those caring for someone aged 50+, the average age of family caregivers is between 50 and 64—these are the people doing the searching for nursing homes. o Do those people Facebook? -- so what was all that ^?  How to use research to get your job done.  You would find more, go back to your boss and start a conversation about whether you would be getting through to the target via the Facebook page. BOOK – RESEARCH SOCIETY, SOMETHING & SOMETHING Perception - CH.1 opens with perceptions - Always question them Perceptions are not always trustworthy. Expectations are not always met. Assumptions can be wrong. Overcoming limitations - research is a tool for overcoming errors in perception, reasoning. - research leads to data we can rigorously evaluate, share. - data needs to be:  empirical o gathered methodically through observation or experiment (including surveys, interviews, etc) Discovery through research - your results might confirm what you expected—or not—and might teach you something entirely new. - A really good video of one Microsoft researcher, Dana Boyd. About 5 years ago, she set out to explore social networking among teens.  WHITE FLIGHT o “Myspace is ghetto” o kids of color were primarily going to Myspace o white and Asian teens going to Facebook o movement from Myspace to Facebook o teens are going to go where their friends are  her discovery was novel at the time, was indicative…** Research is a science - problem oriented  looks for a solution or to understand something - procedure driven  requires careful planning and execution - empirical  based on observation, experiment - logical  we can infer sound, consistent arguments that “make sense” - community-based  shared with a network of researchers working to advance knowledge Model of the scientific method 1. Define the question 2. Locate resources / gather information 3. Form a hypothesis / hypothesis 4. Plan research collection methods 5. Collect data 6. Organize & Analyze data 7. Interpret data & draw conclusions 8. Communicate the results Applied vs. Basic Research - applied research is designed to answer practical, often immediate questions. - basic (pure) research is driven primarily by theory or the desire to build general knowledge. 1/15/2013 2:33:00 PM The Decline of “Neighboring” 1. Descriptive Research** 2. Exploratory Research  focuses on what meanings people they give to their actions, what issues concern them, etc. “What do the people say about this phenomenon?”  [EX] How do people perceive race on social networking sites?  this type of research seeks meaning, often qualitatively, from the social group under study, asks for their input directly. 3. Explanatory Research  seeks to identify causes and effects of social phenomena and to predict how one phenomenon will change or vary in response to variation in some other phenomenon. “What impacts or causes this phenomenon?”  [EX] Does Internet cause loneliness? 4. Evaluation Research  seeks to determine the effects of programs, policies, or other efforts to impact social patterns, whether by government agencies, private nonprofits, or for-profit businesses  [EX] Did this plan to impact X work?  [EX] IS IT GOOD RESEARCH? - 1. Measurement validity  exists when we have measured what we think we did  “did we measure what we think we measured?”  How might we measure loneliness in a survey? o how often do you feel lonely? o in what situations to you feel lonely? o how many people do you think care about you? (Martin) o how lonely do you feel RIGHT NOWWW?  First must think about what loneliness really is.  once we understand it, we can think about measuring it fully. - 2. Generalizibility  the extent to which our work can inform us about persons, places, or events that were not directly  can you take results from one sample, and apply it accurately to the larger population?  TWO KINDS OF GENERALIZABILITY o Sample Generalizability  the sample of people you are studying mirrors the population from which you sampled them o Cross-population Generalizability  findings from one population exist in another population. need multiple studies, or to compare results with other studies or make argument why populations are similar - 3. Causal Validity (Internal Validity)  key question is whether observed changes can be attributed to your identified “cause” and not to other possible causes.  need controls  this type of validity is only relevant in studies that try to establish a causal relationship -- Back to the Scientific Method – WHAT MAKES A RESEARCH QUESTION GOOD?  1. Feasible  2. Important (subjective) o so to make it more objective, include why it is important, make an argument  3. Relevant o within the context where you are conducting the research THEORY - defines concepts and relationships among those concepts - helps ground you in the existing research - provides the researcher with expectations - theory of planned behavior : explores what makes people act  intention  subsequent behavior  expectations of others - can be empirically tested (not pie in the sky ideas) - will learn some theories later in semester APPROACHES TO RESEARCH - deductive research  starts with theory and then testing its implications with data  expectations are deduced from the theory o then tested with data that have been collected for this purpose  expectation : hypothesis  a hypothesis proposes specific relationship between two or more variables o variables are characteristics or properties that can vary among or within people  variation in one variable  predicts, influences, or causes variation in the other variable  the variation with influence is the independent variable; its effect of consequence is the dependent variable  independent variable  dependent variable  [EX] advertising exposure is positively related to attitude of the brand - inductive research  collect data, then develop theory to explain patterns in the data  begins with the specific data  data used to develop (induce) a general explanation (theory)  you start “in the data” and you build a theory to explain what is going on  our photovoice project will be inductive --- a research project can use both strategies --- WHICH IS THE BEST RESEARCH DESIGN? - cross-sectional : one point in time - longitudinal : two or more points in time Who to study?  individuals or groups as units of analysis? o in most sociological and psychological studies, the units of analysis are individuals WHICH METHOD?  reading  survey  interview  experiments  observation  etc. Institutional review boards (IRB)  set up to make sure that any research that comes out of UT is ethical, morally sound, and not harming any individually  any government agency, university and research facility has one  reviews all research proposals involving humans or animals  apply ethics standards set by the federal regulations -- MEDIA RESEARCH – - media research in this case reers to your research of media coverage regarding you client, organization, product, etc - we are interested primarily in media content as it happens  work at an agency, any client you have, you need to know what the media is saying about the brand, product, etc, in REAL TIME so you can advise them how to respond CONTENT & REACH -
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