# BIO 365S Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Functional Residual Capacity, Intrapleural Pressure, Alveolar Pressure

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16 May 2018
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Human Physiology Exam 3 Study Guide
Ch17 Resp. system.
Spirometry: know the four volumes and capacities
Volumes:
1. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): the amount of air that you can breath in over and above
tidal volume.
2. Tidal Volume (Tv): the amount of air you move in or out of your lungs during a single
respiratory cycle under resting conditions.
3. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): the amount of air that you can voluntarily expel after
you have completed a normal, quiet, respiratory cycle.
4. Residual Volume: the amount of air that remains in your lungs even after maximal
exhalation.
Capacities:
1. Inspiratory Capacity: amount of air you can draw into your lungs past and including a
completed normal, quiet, respiration cycle. Sum of Tv + IRV
2. Vital Capacity: the maximum amount of air that you can move in or out of your lungs in a
single respiratory cycle. ERV + Tv + IRV
3. Functional residual Capacity (FRC): amount of air remaining in your lungs after you have
completed a quiet respiratory cycle. ERV + Residual Volume.
4. Total Lung Capacity: total volume of lungs calculated by sum of Vital capacity and Residual
volume. Averages around 6000 mL in men and 4200 mL in women.
Intra-alveolar pressure and intrapleural pressure changes during breathing
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- Intra-alveolar pressure: pressure in lungs
. )nhalation: starts at → -→  mmHg).
. Exhalation: starts at → +→  mm(g.
Always starts and goes back to 0 mmHg because this is not a completely closed chamber so
pressure is equal to outside pressure so there's no air flow.
- Intrapleural pressure: pressure in pleural cavity
1. Inhalation: starts at -→ -6 (mmHg).
2. Exhalation: -→ -3 (mmHg).
This chamber is completely closed so there is always some air in it. That’s
why it starts at -3 mmHg.
- Pressure decreases in both during inspiration and increases for both during expiration.
- Volume increases with inspiration and decreases with expiration
- *might have to draw on the exam:
- Transpulmonary pressure (TPP): Intra-alveolar - intrapleural pressure.
- Normal range is 3-6 mmHg. If TPP is negative that means the lungs will collapse.
-
Which of the following description of the intra-alveolar and intrapleural pressure changes during
breathing are correct?
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A) Alveolar = atmospheric pressure at the beginning and end of inspiration
B) Intrapleural pressure is subatmospheric at the beginning of inspiration only
C) Intrapleural pressure is larger than alveolar pressure during expiration
D) More than 1 correct
E) None correct
Ventilation calculation: the pulmonary and alveolar ventilation rates
Total pulmonary ventilation = ventilation rate (aka breathing rate) x tidal volume.
Alveolar ventilation = ventilation rate x (Vt - dead space volume (Vd))
Muscles used for inspiration and expiration
Low Compliance (restrictive)- fibrotic disease, pregnancy, obesity
High compliance- emphysema
Inspiration:
Inhalation: Pressure decreases and volume increases. (compliance)
Scalene
Sternocleidomastoid
External intercostals
These are the only muscles used for rested breathing
Diaphragm
Expiration:
Exhalation: pressure increases and volume decreases (elastance)
Internal intercostals
Abdominal muscles
Only during forceful expiration
Pulmonary calculations
Inspiratory capacity= tidal volume +inspiratory reserve volume
Functional residual capacity =expiratory reserve volume + residual volume
Vital capacity= tidal volume + inspiratory reserve + expiratory reserve
Total lung capacity= EVERYTHING BOTTOM TO TOP
Ch18-Gas exchange and transport
Respiratory pathologies. How the O2 Pressure been affected at different parts of the
body.
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