• Sacred and effective narrative
• No single perfect definition
• Common definition- False, related to gods.
• Harari-imagined realities, collective fictions - don’t really EXIST, but
true/false is not in question. Help people in large groups cooperate and
• Dr. Lundy-Stories, inspiring
• Create an emotional psychological effects, prompt action, encourage group
cohesion, determine in/out groups
• Hybrid forms-truth and falsehood
• No singular definition.
What is classical?
• Geographical/cultural designation-Rome and Greece
• Historical extent- 800 BCE to 400 CE
• The word classical can generally be used to describe something that is
influential or exemplary.
• It is a period or phase of artistic or cultural development.
• The classics have also been used to segregate or divide the people into
classes, which Dr. Lundy refers to as "in and out groups".
• People who had knowledge of classical art and literature, who knew Greek
and Latin, were considered educated and enlightened, while the rest were,
as Aulus Gellius called them, "proletarian".
• Hence, the use of the word 'classical' had both positive and negative
connotations in society.
• Status designation
• Supremacy of aristocracy, males, and race.
• Hesiod was a Greek poet (750-650 BCE) who produced two major works
known to us-The Theogony, and Works and Days.
• The Theogony is a poem detailing the world of the gods, from the
perspective of a human.
• Hesiod claims to have been inspired by the Muses of Helicon, who told him
to sing of the rise of the gods, with special emphasis on Zeus, the King of
• Hesiod relates the tale of the beginning of time, when Heaven and Earth are
born from the chasm, or from nothingness. They are followed by Eros
(desire) and Tartara (decay). From this elemental pairing of opposites, the
Titans are born. The youngest son of Earth, Kronos, overthrows his father
and takes the throne.
• Similarly, Kronos' son Zeus defeats him, ushering in the Age of the
• The Theogony is, therefore, a series of succession myths, with the stories
getting more complicated with each generation.
• The nine Muses were immortal goddesses, the daughters of Zeus and the
goddess Memory, Mnemosyne.
• Hesiod locates them on Helicon, as do other poets after him. The Muses are
inspirational goddesses of literature, art, and science.
• Calliope-epic poetry; Thalia-comedy
• Hesiod says that the Muses were the ones who gave him the gift of poetry
and inspired him to write about the story of the gods.
• They can also grant the gift of persuasion to the kings they favor, and allow
them to speak with ease.
• Zeus, the youngest son of Kronos and Rhea, is the most important character
in the Hesiod, and perhaps in all of Greek mythology.
• He was hidden away by his mother, Rhea, with the help of Gaia to protect
him from Kronos, who had swallowed Zeus' siblings.
• Zeus later returned to overthrow Kronos and save his siblings. Zeus then
allied himself with other gods, giants, etc. to defeat the Titans in a terrible
war, thus becoming ruler and establishing the Olympian gods as the main
• Zeus has a special relation to political rulers and justice. Zeus is generally
described as a mature, middle-aged man with a beard and carrying a
• He is sometimes accompanied by an eagle, a symbol of his status. Another
important characteristic is his amorous nature, which leads to him having
several affairs and betraying his wife, Hera.
Zeus, known as Jupiter in Roman mythology, is the Greek god of sky and thunder
and is the youngest son of Kronos and Rhea. He is the most important character in
Hesiod’s Theogony, and perhaps in all of Greek mythology.
When Zeus was born, he was hidden away by his mother, Rhea, with the help of the
Earth, to protect him from his father Kronos. Kronos feared that he would be
defeated by his children, and so he swallowed them. Rhea deceived him and gave
him a rock to swallow instead of the baby, while Gaia raised Zeus in the land of
Crete. Zeus then managed to overthrow his father and save his siblings. What
followed was a long and terrible war, where the Titans fought against Zeus and the
other gods for supremacy. The gods finally prevailed, establishing the twelve
Olympian gods as the main gods, with Zeus as the ruler of gods and men.
Every god is easily identifiable by certain characteristics; for Zeus, these include a
beard, a thunderbolt and occasionally an eagle. He is usually portrayed as a mature
man in his forties. The myths also give us insight into his amorous nature. He is
often described cheating on his wife, Hera, and begetting children with other
goddesses and mortals.
Despite his moral ambiguity, Zeus was widely respected amongst the Greeks, and
has a special relationship with kings, political rulers and justice. Perhaps the
feature that sets Zeus apart from Ouranos and Kronos was his foresight and ability
Myth: sacred and effective narrative, no single perfect definition, common definition- false, related to gods, harari-imagined realities, collective fictions - don"t really exist, but true/false is not in question. Help people in large groups cooperate and band together: dr. lundy-stories, inspiring, create an emotional psychological effects, prompt action, encourage group cohesion, determine in/out groups, hybrid forms-truth and falsehood, flexible, no singular definition. What is classical: geographical/cultural designation-rome and greece, historical extent- 800 bce to 400 ce, the word classical can generally be used to describe something that is influential or exemplary. Gods: hesiod relates the tale of the beginning of time, when heaven and earth are born from the chasm, or from nothingness. They are followed by eros (desire) and tartara (decay). The youngest son of earth, kronos, overthrows his father and takes the throne: similarly, kronos" son zeus defeats him, ushering in the age of the.