[C C 306M] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (96 pages long)

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UT-Austin
C C 306M
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1: Basic Components
History:
Heavily influenced by Greek
Greeks begun the language of medicine
Oath of Hippocrates in Hippocratic Corpus, a book full of
medicinal authorship, 12 volumes.
Hippocrates (c. 460 c. 370 BC)
Hippocrates the iatros
Hippocrates the legend
Note: Iatr- = medicine, healing, treatment, physician.
Latin in Medical Terminology:
Once Roman assimilation of Greek Medicine into Latin was
complete, Latin became the lingua franca of European academics.
Note: medic- = (L. medicus, healter, physician) medicine.
Latin Language of Scientific nomenclatures:
Anatomical (flexor carpi ulnaris)
Pathological (pediculosis corporis)
Bacteriology (Staphylococcus aureus)
Zoological (Phlebotomus varrucarum)
Botanical (Rhododendron chamanii)
Practical Reasons for the Use of Greek and Latin in Medical Terminology
1. Descriptive
o Staphyl- [Gr. Staphyle, bunch of grapes], staphylococcus and
uvula.
2. Easily combined
o Myelomeningocele = myel + mening- + -cele.
3. Create a lingua franca for science and medicine
o L. cortex, cortices = bark.
Frequently used terms in the class
Etymology: the study of the origins and historical meanings of
words
o [Gr. Etymos = true, actual + logia = study of, as speaking
of].
o Psychiatry [Gr. Psyche, soul + iatros, physician]
o 1. Compound terms:
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Osteoarthrotomy [ Gr. Osteon, bone + arthron, joint +
tome, incision] Surgical excision of the articular end of a
bone.
o 2. Loan Words
Angina [L. angina, quinsy, fr. Angere, to choke]
Angina pectoris acute sore throat.
o 3. Eponyms [Gr. Epi, upon + onyma, name]
Transliteration: the transposition of a word from one language to
another.
Synonyms:
o Greek: rhin/o; Latin: nas/o
o Greek: my/o; Latin: muscul/o
o Greek: nephr/o; Latin: ren/o
o Greek: angi/o; Latin: vas/o
o Greek: cephalos; Latin: caput
Basic term components/word elements:
Roots: essential part by which most medical terms are formed.
Derived from Greek + Latin nouns, verbs, and adjectives.
Combining vowel: used to join a root to another root or to a suffix.
The vowels most commonly used are ‘o’ and ‘I’; vowels such as ‘a’,
‘y’, and ‘u’ are sometimes use, but far less often.
o Does not add any meaning to the word. Used for euphony.
o Added when joining a root to another root, or suffix beginning
with a consonant.
o Not added when joining a root to a suffix beginning with a
vowel.
Combining Form: a root with a combining vowel.
Suffix: one/two syllable word element appended to end of a medical
term in order to modify its meaning. Most are Anglicized Greek or
Latin suffixes which have taken on specific meanings.
Prefix: one/two syllable word element attached to beginning of a
term to modify meaning of word.
o Derived from Gree/Latin adverbs and prepositions.
o Convey time, quantity, quality, intensity, position, direction.
o More than one prefix may be attached to a single term.
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