[CH 301] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 13 pages long Study Guide!

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6 Feb 2017
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UT-Austin
CH 301
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Ionic Compounds vs Covalent Compounds
Ionic Compounds (NM & M)
→ Formed between a metal and nonmetal (lattice of + and - charged ions)
→ Caused by electrostatic attraction
Covalent Compounds (NM & NM)
→ Tightly held set of neutral atoms forming neutral bond
→ “Discrete” particles called molecules
Metallic Compounds
→ Between Metals and Metals
Important Stuff:
→ Elements cannot be broken down into simpler substances (physically or chemically)
→ Compounds can be broken down
Ionic Compounds
-Ionic compounds are collections of many ions (also polyatomic ions)
-They form repeating structure of ions
→ lattice structure
-Metals form cations (+) and Nonmetals form anions (-)
-Valence electrons → those in the outer shell
-Ionic Charge→ +1, +2, transition metals, +3, -3, -2 ,-1, 0
Ionic Bonding
→ chemical bonds that have “moved” from one element in compound to another (forms
ions)
Net Effect
→ sum of ionization energy, electron affinity, and lattice energy
Ionic Radii
→ same trend as atomic radius, but cations and anions have diff. radius
NOTE: How do you figure which has larger lattice energy?
1) small size ion = large charge density
2) greater charge density = greater lattice energy
Covalent Compounds
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-Minimizing “r” and energy gives covalent compounds a stable state
Bond Length
→ distance at which the P.E. is at a minimum
Bond Strength
→ difference in energy at minimum compared to
separated atoms
Dissociation Energy
→ amount of energy required to separate two bonded
atoms
NOTE: -The less the bond length→ The greater the
bond strength
-Bond strength varies w/ size of atoms bound together
-Multiple bonds are shorter/stronger than lesser bonds between like atoms
Line Drawings(note that Carbon likes to make four bonds)
Line Drawing for
C6H14
Complex Line
Drawings
Lewis Dot Structures
5 Steps to Lewis Dot Structures
1) Put central atom in middle & surround by perimeter atoms
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