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Ch 301 Quiz #3 Notes.docx

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CH 301
Dave A.Laude

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Quiz #3 Notes 1. Theory (laws, state functions, definitions) Thermodynamics – the study of the energy change in a system  ∆G = free energy  ∆H = enthalpy  ∆E = internal energy  ∆S = entropy  W = work Universe = system + surroundings Thermodynamics laws:  All the mass in the universe is conserved [FIRST LAW]  The entropy in the universe is always increasing [SECOND LAW]  There is an absolutely lowest temperature [THIRD LAW] State functions:  T, P, V, moles (n) [gases]  E, H, S, G [thermo] 2. Sign convention BE THE SYSTEM! ∆H (-) Exothermic, heat released, hot (+) Endothermic, heat absorbed, cold ∆G (-) Spontaneous (+) Non spontaneous ∆S (-) Ordered (+) Disordered W (-) A bomb, work done on surroundings (+) “Arming a bomb”, work done on system 3. Calorimetry theory Enthalpy ∆H: Negative = heat given off to surroundings = exothermic Positive = heat absorbed so surroundings cold = endothermic 4. Bomb calorimeter calculation [calculates ∆H] Balloon in a sealed container:  Isolated system  ∆E = 0 universe  ∆H unvierse0 = ∆Hsystem+ ∆Hsurrounding  ∆H = mC∆T = ∆H = mC∆T system surrounding surrounding ∆H = mC∆T  ∆H = heat change of system  M = mass of system  C = specific heat  ∆T = temperature change 5. Heats of formation calculation [calculates ∆H] In this method, the molecules become elements in standard states (298K, 1 atm) and then reform products. [all states of matter] ∆H f ∆H product ∆Hreactant ∆H combustion ∑∆H f produ
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