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CH 301 Exam 2 Question Type Notes.docx

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University of Texas at Austin
CH 301
Dave A.Laude

E x a m 2 T e s t R e v i e w [ L e c t u r e 1 0 - 1 8 ] 1. Ranking bond polarity ∑∆EN = 0 non-polar molecule [symmetrical] Ex: C-----C ∑∆EN ≠ 0 polar molecule [non-symmetrical] Ex: C-----O ∆EN < 1.5 covalent bond Ex: C-----O ∆EN > 1.5 ionic bond Ex: Na-----Cl 2. Assigning molecule polarity from VSEPR 3. Assigning molecule polarity from VSEPR 4. Bond angles from VSEPR Unbonding e- pair takes up more space, causing a distortion of the bond angle. Ex: 2 O [smaller than 109.5°] 5. VB Theory of hybrid orbits  Hybridizing one 2s orbital with two 2p orbitals would produce three sp orbitals  When sp d orbitals are created, three d orbitals remain empty  An sp d hybrid orbital has 20% s-character  Among the types of hybrid orbitals we have learned about the minimum amount of s-character for a hybrid orbital is 1/6 3  Hybridizing one 2s orbital with three 3p orbitals produce four sp orbitals 6. Electronic geometry from VSEPR [chart] 7. Molecular geometry from VSEPR [chart] 8. Number of σ and π bonds in molecules Every hybrid orbit that forms a valence bond with another atomic orbit is making a sigma bond σ = when e- density is between atoms π = when e- density is off axis [double and triple bonds, resonance] S + S = σ S + P = σ P + P = σ 9. AOs that comprise MOs in a bond Hybridizations [chart] 10. MO Theory Bonding orbitals are lower in energy than anti-bonding orbitals. 11. Filling MOs of diatomic molecules Must follow Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule and Pauli Exclusion Principle For every bonding MO, there is an anti-bonding MO. 12. Calculating bond order from MO Bond order = 0, NO BONDS Bond order > 0, BOND IS FORMED B.O. = 13. Assigning paramagnetism from MO Magnets form from unpaired electrons. Ex: B and O 2 2 14. Ranking bond length from bond order The larger the bond order, the stronger the bond and the shorter the bond length. E x a m 2 T e s t R e v i e w [ L e c t u r e 1 0 - 1 8 ] C--------CO-------ON-------N Bond order: 1 2 3 Bond energy: ================================== Bond length: ================================= 15. Identifying delocalization (resonance) Unpaired bonds 16. Ideal gas law history  Gases consist of molecules in continuous, random motion  The distance between molecules is much larger than the diameter of each molecule  Collisions between molecules are elastic Boyle: pressure and volume has inverse relationship Charles: volume and temperature has direct relationship Avogrado: mole and volume has direct relationship 17. Gas law change of state calculation P1 1= n1RT1 P2 2= n2RT2 18. Calculating MW, M or P from PV = nRT PV = nRT P = pressure (atm)  P = g/V V = volume (liters) n = moles  n = g/MV  n = MV o M = n/V R = constant T = temperature (K)  K = C + 273 19. Reaction stoichometry and PV = nRT Use PV = nRT to find number of moles of certain compound Then figure out the elements and solve. 20. Calculation of relative ratio of gas speeds The higher the temperature, the higher the velocity. kT = 1/2mv^2 21. Ranking non-deality of gases The bigger the molecules, the more it takes space and becomes less ideal. The more polar the molecule, the less ideal. 22. Gas non-ideality theory Diffusion – collisional veloctiy; effusion – abilit of gas molecules to get through a pin hole For small gases: faster speed, faster diffusion, faster effusion For large gases: slower speed, slower diffusion, slower effusion Van der Waals equation for non-ideal gas laws: 2 2 (P + n a/v )(v – nb) = nRT  A and b are fudge factors 
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