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# CH 301 Exam 1 Question Types Notes.docx

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Chemistry

CH 301

Dave A.Laude

Fall

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Question Types Notes
1. Electromagnetic radiation theory and calculation
a. It is used to probe the molecular, atomic and subatomic nature of matter
b. Classified by either frequency or wavelength
i. they have an inverse relationship through the constant c [speed of light]
c. Calculation
i. E = hv
1. E = energy
-34
2. h = Planck’s constant (6.6 x 10 J s)
3. v = EMR frequency
ii. v = c/λ
1. v = frequency 8
2. c = speed of light (3.0 x 10 m/s)
d. Ranking EMR spectrum in terms of E, wavelength (λ) and frequency (v)
i. Higher the frequency, the smaller the wavelength
ii. Frequency rank (highest to lowest)
1. x-ray ultraviolet visual light infrared ray microwave
radio
iii. Wavelength rank (highest to lowest)
1. radio microwave infrared ray visual light ultraviolet x-
ray
iv. Energy rank (highest to lowest)
1. x-ray ultraviolet visual light infrared ray microwave
radio
2. Classical theory falls apart
a. Blackbody radiators
i. Wave theory that suggests blackbodies (heat sources) transmit radiation at all
frequency. (FALSE)
1. Planck’s development of a particle model for EMR helped prove this
theory false
a. There’s a cutoff in the ultraviolet region
b. Photoelectric effect
i. States that if you shine light on a metal, at a certain frequency, electrons are
emitted. (INCONSISTENT)
1. Einstein helped pointed out the consistencies of the theory
a. Stated that a minimum frequency is needed before an electron
is ejected
2
ii. E = mv
c. Emission spectra
i. Balmer discovered that the emission spectra were not continuous, but discrete
lines with the method of electrocuting gases
3. Rydberg equation calculation
a. He came up with an equation to describe the separation in frequency between the
discrete lines
i. V = R
15
1. R = Rydberg constant (3.289 x 10 Hz)
2. N 1 lower energy level
3. N = upper energy level
2 Question Types Notes
4. Particle in a box theory
a. A box with an electron with the box’s potential at V(x) = 0 everywhere
b. Boundary conditions
i. At the edges of the box, the fixed points determine which psi Ѱ) are possible
c.
d. E =
i. As L, length of box, increases, ∆E gets smaller which is why L is macroscopic
ii. E can’t be zero
1. Because the uncertainty principle doesn’t permit particle to lose all
energy and become fixed
e. Ѱ =
5. Uncertainty principle theory and calculation
a. h ≤ 2m∆v∆x
bar
i. hbar= = 1.05 x 10-3Js
ii. ∆v= frequency
iii. ∆x = location
6. deBroglie equation theory and calculation
a. deBrolgie made an equation that would predict the sign of matter waves
i. λ =
1. λ = wavelength
2. m = mass
3. v = velocity
4. p = momentum
ii. inverse relationship between mass and wavelength
7. Schrodinger and wave equations theory
a. Ѱ = psi = is the wave function he wanted to identify
2
b. Ѱ = psi squared = yields the probability that a particle will be in a certain volume
c. He discovered the principle quantum number n Question Types Notes
8. Applying quantum number rules
a.
9. Applying quantum number rules
a.
10. Applying Aufbau, Pauli and Hund
a. Aufbau principle
i. Always fill electron orbits with the orbits that are closest to the nucleus
ii. This is the lowest energy or ground state configuration
b. Pauli exclusion principle
i. Never put more than 2 paired electrons in an orbit
ii. No two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers
iii. The two electrons in each orbit must have opposite spin
iv.
c. Hunds rule
i. Must distribute the electrons between the orbitals as much as possible to
minimize electron repulsion effects
ii.
11. Assigning electronic configurations of atoms and ions
a. We can substitute chunks of filled orbitals as noble gas symbols like [He] or [Fe] Question Types Notes
b.
12. Assigning electronic configurations of atoms and ions (exceptions)
1 5
a. d half-fille1 10s d
b. d filled = s d
13. Assigning electronic configurations of atoms and ions (exceptions)
1 4
a. Large metals with valence p to p electrons (far bottom right of periodic table)
b. Remove them so that a filled d can be created
c. Electrons lost from large ions come off in the following order: p first, s second, d last
14. Periodic table nomenclature
a.
b. Know what group, period, family, transition, shell, subshell, orbital, etc. Question Types Notes
15. Theory of periodic trends: ENC explains IE, EA, AR, IR, metals
a. Shielding and effective nuclear charge (ENC)
i. ENC and size has inverse relationship
1. ENC decreases, size increases; ENC increases, size decreases
ii. ENC = (# of protons in nucleus) – (# of shielding inner shell electrons)
iii.
1. The bigger the ENC, the more attraction to the nucleus and the sm

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