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FR 340T Final: Unit 3 Final Exam Review

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University of Texas at Austin
FR 340T

4/11/17 Ch 6,7 , 13, 14 Nutrients involved in energy metabolism - B vitamins, choline, iodine, chromium B vitamins - act as coenzymes - coenxymes are organic molecules that transfer chemical groups between molecules - provide energy in metabolism - thiamin  TPP - riboflavin  FAD and FMN - Niacin  NAD and NADP - Folate  THF - Pantothenic acid  CoA - Vitamin B6  PLP - Vitamin B12  biotin Do B vitamins give you an energy drink? - no not unless you’re deficient Thiamin - made into TPP - energy metabolism o decarboxylation (cleave off C’s to form CO2) - DNA and RNA synthesis - Nerve function  acetyl choline - Average American gets enough - Protein foods and grains (prok, legumes, seeds, grains,) - beriberi o Thiamin deficiency o Wet (cardiovascular/edema) ▪ Can eventually cause heart failure o Dry (nerve/no edema) ▪ Muscles start to waste paralysis - Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome o Cerebral beriberi o Mental confusion, difficulty walking, a lot in alcoholics who aren’t getting enough vitamins in their diet - Deficiencies commonly seen in alcoholics, anorexics, and chemo patients, or elederly population Riboflavin - converted into flavin mononucleotide (FMN or flavin adenide dinucleotide (FAD) - energy metabolism  accepts and transfers electrons and H+ - conversion of tryptophan to niacin - needed for synthesis of some neurotransfer systems - conversion of fatty acids into acetyl CoA, amino acids into acetyl CoA, TCA cycle, ETC - sources include dairy, protein, grains, and vegetables (meats, mollusks, eggs, mushrooms, asparagus  in season) - can be broken down with sun exposure - no disease state associated with riboflavin toxicity o ariboflavinosis  ▪ stomatitis (inflammation of the lining of the mouth and tongue) ▪ glossitis  inflammation of the tongue ▪ cheilosis  inflammation at the sides of the mouth niacin (nicotinic acid and nicotinamids) - NAD and NADP  energy metabolism and alcohol metabolism, oxidation of fat, amino acid synthesis - Made from tryptophan - Niacin equivalents (some comes from tryptophan  60 mg of tryptophan = 1 gram of niacin) - Sources (protein foods, vegetables, grains) - Deficiency  pellagra o Dermatitis o Diarrhea o Dementia o Death o Seen in alcoholics - Corn is limiting in niacin o Expose to bath of calcium carbonate to free up the niacin - Toxicity o Pharmacological doses can treat hyperlipidemia (acts like a drug), decreases LDL and triglycerides and increases HD: o Side effects  gastric reflux, nausea, liver damage, develop a rash, niacin flush (capillary dilation) o Tolerable upper limit  35 mg 15. Describe functions of vitamin B12. How does this vitamin interact with folic acid? • Maintains nerve sheath- myelin sheath • Co enzyme called cobalamin o Amino acid metabolism o DNA synthesis • B12 activates folic acid and gets activated. Folic acid is methylated and inactive. B12 is not methylated and is inactive. o B12 takes the methyl and becomes active. Folic acid loses methyl and becomes active o Need vitamin B12 to activate in folic acid so it can participate in DNA synthesis 16. List food sources of vitamin B12. • In animal foods- so if vegan consume fortified foods in order to consume b12 • Beef, • Fish • Poultry • Meats • Eggs • Liver is a great source • Dairy products • Fortified foods (not the natural source) 17. Before vitamin B12 can be absorbed in the intestine, what chemical modifications to vitamin B12 are necessary? • Need HCl to be secreted in the stomach cells • Stomach cells also secrete intrinsic factor • Intrinsic factor does not bind with b12 until it is in small intestine • Needs to bind with intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed 18. Why are older individuals recommended to consume vitamin B12 fortified food? • Reduced HCl acid production and reduced intrinsic factor secretion is pretty common in elderly people 19. Describe pernicious anemia in vitamin B12 deficiency. • Same macrocytic hyperchromic that you do with folic acid • Folic acid isn’t getting activated because you don’t have enough vitamin B12 • But also develop nerve damage which can cause paralysis o Added symptom that you don't see in folic acid deficiency ▪ What distinguishes vitamin b12 deficiency and folic acid deficiency Pantothenic Acid - converted into Coenzyme A  energy metabolism, cholesterol synthesis, steroid hormone synthesis - sources: mushrooms, avocados, meats, whole grains, eggs Biotin - coenzyme  carboxylation - energy metabolism - sources include food daiy, (protein foods and grains) and produced by bacteria in the gut - makes oxaloacetate and helps with fatty acid metabolism B6 - made into pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) - AMINO ACID METABOLISM  and production of nonessential amino acids through transamination - Involved in neurotransmitter synthesis, serotonin, tryptophan to niacin - Involved in hemoglobin synthesis and antibody production - Involved in energy metabolism, glycogen to glucose, and formation of glucose - Transamination  transfer of amino group from one amino acid to another - Sources include protein foods, vegetables, fruits (bananas and watermelon), nuts, grains, legumes - Deficiency o Microcytic hypochromic anemia (low color) o Stomatitis, cheiliosis, glossitis o Depression and confusion - Tolerable upper intake limit  can be toxic, stored in the body and if consumed 10-6 grams a day o Neuropathy which can affect your nerves and cause paralysis o Wouldn’t develop unless supplemented for long term o 100 mg Chapter 8 - answers to last exam will be posted th - 13 = quiz 8 and Tuesday = quiz 9 - april 20 will be a case study o in-class activity Office of dietary supplements and the US national library of medicine - Database of nutrient information for dietary supplements - www.dsid.nlm.nih.giv/dsld/prdlinfo Choline - vitamin-like but is an essential nutrient - we make some/not enough in the liver - function  phospholipids and acetylcholine (NT) - sources  wide spread in food supply, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, nuts, and seeds - no RDA but an adequate intake, no UI, deficiency is rare iodide - part of thyroid hormones - involved in metabolism o body temperature o metabolic rate o blood cell production o nerve and muscle function - T3 and T4 are the thyroid hormones - Sources  ocean seafood, some plants in high iodide soil (once covered by ocean), iodized salt, breads, dairy - Toxicity o Hyperthyroid/hypothyroid o Goiter o Seen in Japan (high seafood intake) o Can actually suppress thyroid production Chromium - function  enhances insulin activity and helps get glucose into the cells - deficiency  high blood glucose - sources o widespread : mushrooms and asparagus and dark chocolate and whole grains - no indication of toxicity Chart of vitamins and minerals in canvas End of chapter 8 Chapter 9 Micronutrients involved in fluid and electrolyte balance Weaker bonds  ionic bonds, covalent bonds are stronger Electrolytes are ions that can conduct electricity 3 fluid compartments - among = interstitial - within cell = intracellular - inside vessels = intravascular - number of ions inside cell should equal amount outside the cell but distribution is different - important for nerve transmission o especially Na and K - electrolytes Na/K (switch place during a nerve impulse) - electrolytes help keep fluids in their respective compartments through osmosis (solutes inside the cell = solutes outside the cell) - what effect would excessive sweating have? o Cells would shrink because you’re losing water o Concentration of solutes becomes concentrated outside the cell  cells shrink Fluid balance - increased osmolarity = decreased blood pressure - H20 retention  ADH (thirtst), Renin, Aldosterone o Increase volume - Dehydration = increased water loss, which increases extracellular solute so Na concentration increases and causes increased osmolarity (solutes/liter) to increase - Increased osmolarity o Hypothalamus secretes ADH  first line of defense against dehydration ▪ Released via pituitary gland and travels in the blood ▪ Effects the kidney to help water retention (aquaporins will reabsorb the water) ▪ Less urination, increased thirst, ▪ If blood volume decreases continuously = another pathway • Blood pressure decreases • Kidney releases renin • Renin is an enzyme that produces angiotensinogen (made in liver) to angiotensin II (hormone) o This acts on adrenal gland, which then secretes aldosterone ▪ This acts on the kidney to help retain sodium  increase osmolarity, increase blood volume ▪ Powerful vasoconstrictor and increases blood pressure ▪ Stimulates secretion of ADH to trigger thirst - Salt increases osmolarity - Decrease osmolarity Fluid Balance - we also make water when we break down energy yielding nutrients - excretes water through urine, skin, and lungs, and a bit through feces - mass fluid balance = homeostasis Hydration - prior to practice or event  at least 8-12 ounces - water is good for activity less than an hour - more than an hour  need a sports drink - during practice or event  ½ to a cup of water every 15 minutes (4-8 ounces) - after a practice of event  drink 20-24 ounces of water for every pound lost Dehydration - decreases performance 4/13/17 th Chapter 9 due Tuesday, on the 20 the case study is due at 2pm - class activity Fluids  dehydration - reduces muscle endurance (1-3% dehydration) - reduces muscle strength - heat cramps and heat exhaustion - collapse occurs at 7% dehydration o shortness of breath, nausea, headaches Sports Drinks (useful for activity greater than an hour) - fluid - electrolytes - glucose - spares glycogen use - better not to use fruit juice because it can cause upset stomach o glucose in sports drink is more dilute Sodium - sodium is related to high blood pressure o disruption of fluid balance - roles in the body o fluid balance o nerve transmission o muscle contraction o acid-base balance - too much sodium o adequate intake = 1500 mg o older adults = 1300 mg o avg daily intake = 3500 mg o UL no more than 2300 mg a day - Source of sodium o Mostly from processed foods (77%) ▪ Breads, rolls ▪ Cheese ▪ Canned meats ▪ Canned vegetables ▪ Canned soups ▪ Snack foods ▪ Table salt, soy sauce - Decrease sodium in the diet o Decreasing processed foods and increase whole foods o Sodium increased BP, potassium helps to normalize BP - 11 servings of fruits and vegetables a day (hypertension diet) o 4 servings of grain o 2 servings of dairy o legumes and nuts 2 servings per day o 1 serving fresh poultry, meat, fish - deficient in sodium o hyponatremia ▪ caused by increased excretion (vomiting, diarrhea, sweating) ▪ excessive water intake ▪ symptoms • muscle cramps • headaches • seizures • nausea • vomiting ▪ cell volume from hyponatremia from excessive water intake would expand  problem in the brain • can cause headaches and seizures o hypernatremia  high blood sodium ▪ decreased excretion, excessive intake ▪ common in congestive heart failure • body can’t get rid of salt  edema ▪ kidney disease ▪ acute hypertension (sudden high BP) Potassium - major cation inside the cells (NA is major cation outside the cell) - fluid balance - muscle/nerve function - blood pressure - bone health - AI = 4700 mg / day - Found in fresh whole foods - Hypokalemia o Too little potassium o Increased loss, decreased intake o Common in people who take diuretics o Symptoms ▪ Can cause heart problems  arrhythmia ▪ Anorexics and alcoholics ▪ Could be fatal, muscle weakness, loss of appetite - Hyperkalemia o Too much potassium ▪ Decreased excretion, usually due to poor kidney function ▪ Can stop heart Phosphorous - roles in the body o fluid balance o bone health o enegy (ATP_ o phospholipids o part of DNA/RNA o enzyme activation o buffer o RDA = 700 mg - Sources o Fish o Meat, poultry, legumes o Eggs o Dairy - Phytic acid in plants binds minerals and keep them form being absorbed 4/18/17 - free radicals o increase risk for chronic illness ▪ heart disesase ▪ cancers ▪ diabetes ▪ age-related vision impairment ▪ arthritis o Antioxidants neutralize free radicals  give up their electrons instead of letting other molecules take the effect ▪ vitamin E ▪ vitamin C ▪ carotenoids • betacarotene  provitamin A - Vitamin E o Protects lipids and cell membrane o Donates electron to free radical to stabilize it o Become oxidized  reduce the free radical o Protects lungs as well o Alpha tocopherols ▪ The most biologically active form o RDA ▪ Alpha tocopherol activity o Most stored in adipose tissue or liver cells  15 mg o Supplements ▪ Natural (d) vs synthetic (dl) • Alpha tocopherol ▪ International units (IU) • Conversion to mg in text o 15 mg /day o sources ▪ plant oils ▪ nuts, seeds, eggs, fortified grains - Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) o Scurvy caused by vitamin c deficiency o Function ▪ Antioxidant ▪ Cofactor for many enzymes • Collagen • Hormones • Neurotransmitters ▪ Iron absorption (especially plant iron) ▪ Immunity o Sources ▪ Citrus ▪ Fruits and vegetables ▪ Brussel sprouts, tomatoes, broccoli o 90mg/males 75mg/females o water soluble  can’t be stored so too much is just excreted o Deficiency ▪ scurvy ▪ early signs bleeding gums, capillaries bursting/lack of collagen, encourages atherosclerosis ▪ late wounds that fail to heal, anemia, increased infections, hysteria and depression, death o excess ▪ GI distress ▪ Kidney stones in susceptible people o UI = 3000 mg - Carotenoids o Precursors to vitamin a ▪ Beta carotene (most common) ▪ Other provitamin A carotenoids o Antioxidants ▪ Beta carotene ▪ Other provitamin A carotenoids ▪ Lutein ▪ Xeazanthin ▪ Lycophene ▪ Alpha carotene, beta carotene, and betacrytocanthin can be converted to vitamin A o Sources ▪ Orange and red fruits/vegetables ▪ Also in dark green vegetables - Active vitamin A o Retinol ▪ Transport and storage ▪ Reproduction ▪ 80% in the diet is this form o retinal ▪ vision ▪ part of visual pigment (rhodopsin) in rods • sensitive to light • changes from cis to trans  leaves opsin (the protein) electrical impulse to brain • trans retinal reconverts to cis retinal o retinoic acid ▪ cell development ▪ immunity ▪ growth o retinol  retinal  retinoic acid (one way reaction) o sources of retinol ▪ milk, eggs, any dairy, liver, fatty fish o some carotenoids can be converted to active retinol o RDA = ▪ Retinol activity equivalents (RAE) • Retinol preformed • 900 micrograms for men or 700 micrograms for women • 1 microgram of retinol = 1 microgram RAE - vitamin A deficiency  early o poor vision/ especially night vision o increased infections  poor epithelial cell differentiation and development ▪ immature cells secrete keratin - late symptoms of vitamin A deficiency o xeropthalmia  blindness o bitot spots(keratin deposits), xerosis (drying of the cornea), keratomalacia o hyperkeratosis  keratin deposits on skin - vitamin A toxicity o can be toxic o birth defects o bone abnormalities o liver damage o Accutane  acne drug ▪ Retinoic acid ▪ Birth defects  heart defects and cleft palette, microcephaly and hydrocephaly ▪ Can stunt growth of children at high levels - Phytochemicals o Antioxidants or immune challengers o Chapter 10.5 - After class activity 4/25/17 Micronutrients and Bone Health and Blood Health Vitamin D sources - liver, eggs, milk, and fortified foods - deficiency o rickets in children ▪ common world wide ▪ increase in the past 20 years  parents are protecting them too much from the sun ▪ more soda and less milk ▪ bowed legs, growth restricted, bones are weak o osteomalacia in adults ▪ typically seen in elderly population because they don’t make vitamin D as well as young people ▪ obese individuals because vitamin D doesn’t migrate into the blood because the fat tissue keeps it from being activated ▪ bone pain, weak muscles, weak bones, susceptible to fracture o vitamin D toxicity ▪ stored in our liver and fat ▪ high level = high blood calcium ▪ Ca deposits in soft tissues ▪ kidney stones ▪ 50 micrograms (4000 IU) = UL - decrease in calcium intake over time affect ton blood calcium levels? o No effect o Vitamin D and PTH control blood calcium o But this can affect your bones long term Osteoporosis - affects 25 million people in the US - mainly white women - loss of estrogen - inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D - lack of exercise - bones are porous  fractures - estrogen has a positive effect on bone density - around 25-30 = peak bone mass - osteopenia = pre-osteoporosis - causes shrinkage o wedge fractures o kyphosis - risk factors o aging o lifeling inadequate intake of calcium o early menopause o vitamin D deficiency o genetics/race o low body weight (less than 127 pounds) o smoking o alcohol abuse (increased excretion of calcium) o lack of physical activity - might be able to reverse bone loss with lifestyle changes - treatmet of osteoporosis o hormone replacement therapy  estrogen and progesterone to decrease osteoclast activity o one medication that increases osteoblast activity -> PTH o nutrition  adequate nutrients and potassium and magnesium vitamins D and C and K (osteocalcin to bind minerals) and protein Calcium supplements - benefits o good for vegans o lactose intolerant o milk allergies - pitfalls o may contain heavy metals o may contain vitamin D o high intake High intake of calcium - inhibits absorption of other minerals - excess blood calcium -> confusion, calcium deposits in soft tissues, muscle rigor - (decrease absorption of iron, magnesium, phosphorous, and zinc) - constipation - kidney stones - don’t go over 2500 milligrams per day types of calcium supplements - tums has a high percentage of easily absorbable calcium - calcium carbonate is easily absorbed (40% calcium)  highest Ca containing supplement - low dose supplement Calcium citrate - 21-23% calcium - absorbable when stomach acid isn’t as prevalent (atrophic gastritis  caused by same bacteria that causes ulcer helicobacter pylori) - more easily absorbed - calcium gluconate  9% calcium  not even useful - take it with a meal or shortly after - low dose  no more than 500 mg per dose to increase absorption - RDA = 1000 mg Blood Health (chapter 12) - iron o cofactor for many enzymes o transports and releases oxygen o part of hemoglobin and myoglobin (takes O2 from hemoglobin and makes it available to tissues) proteins o synthesis of neurotransmitters o 80% of iron in your body is found in hemoglobin o iron distribution and recycled ▪ 90% of iron is recycled (not much excretion) ▪ intestine absorbs it ▪ 10-20 mg per day and only 1-2 mg are absorbed ▪ absorption depends on body stores ▪ once absorbed, it’s attached to transport protein, transferrin, ▪ most taken to bone marrow for red blood cells ▪ stored in our liver with a protein called ferratin ▪ rest of the iron is used for cellular metabolism ▪ blood loss = largest way to lose iron o body aborbs what needed and not whats not needed with food  not the same with supplementation o 2 types of iron ▪ heme iron  hemoglobin  meats ▪ non-heme iron  meats and plants • most iron in this form but heme iron is better absorbed (30% what you ingest) while non-heme iron fluctuates (2-20%) • grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, fortified foods - zinc - copper - vitamin K - folate - B12 4/27 Iron Absorption varies with diet - none heme iron o increased absorption ▪ meat factor (meat, fish, and poultry)  hemaglobin ▪ vitamin C ▪ stomach acids ▪ 30% always absorbed o non-heme iron ▪ plants, meats ▪ varies in bioavailability o factors that increase non-heme absorption ▪ meat factor that helps to increase absorption of iron ▪ vitamin C ▪ stomach acids • some elderly people have decreased HCL as they age (atrophic gastritis) ▪ better absorbed in ferrous state (+2) o Factors that decreases non-heme absorption ▪ Phytates (in fibrous plants) ▪ Fibers ▪ Polyphenols (phytochemicals in coffee and tea and red wine) • Bind iron and keep it from being absorbed ▪ Calcium (competes with iron absorption  other mineals as well) ▪ Vegetable proteins ▪ Fiber up to 32 grams doesn’t affect iron absorption • More than that is not good for iron o Vegans that don’t eat any meat should eat 1.2X in heme iron what omnivores eat ▪ Bioavailability of iron isn’t as good o RDA ▪ 18 mg/day for premenopause ▪ 8 g/day for men and postmenopause ▪ 27 mg / day for pregnancy ▪ UL = 45 mg o Sources of iron = meat, fish, poultry, legumes, eggs, grains, dark greens, some fruits, contamination form iron appliances ▪ KNOW WHAT’S IN REFINED GRAINS ▪ Not in dairy - Iron deficiency o Blood loss o Decreased intake o Increased needs (pregnancy, needs) o Symptoms of iron deficiency ▪ Anemia • Microcytic (small) and hypochromic (pale) ▪ Fatigue ▪ Weakness ▪ Headaches ▪ Poor tolerance to cold • Iron deficiency can affect thyroid hormone production (body temperature changes) ▪ Pica • Craving for non food items ▪ Most common deficiency worldwide • About 15% ▪ US = decreased deficiency because of supplementation and fortification, and oral contraceptives • Vulnerable populations o Young children o Women of child bearing age - Supplementation o Iron between meals or bedtime o Drink a lot of fluids  they are very constipating - Toxicity o Massive dose o Vomiting o Diarrehea o Rapid heart rate o Shock o Leading cause of accidental poisoning in children - Iron overload o Hemochromatosis (intestine indiscriminately absorbs iron  too much absorption) ▪ Treatment = remove blood ▪ Avoid alcohol ▪ Avoid o Repeated blood transfusion o Massives doses o Damage to GI tract o Symptoms ▪ Lethargy, fatigue, tissue damage, increased infection Zinc - cofactor for many enzymes - growth - development of sexual organs - storage, release, function of insulin - taste acuity - immunity (WBC) - superoxide dismutase (powerful antioxidant) - zinc stores are low = more absorption - zinc absorption varies 15-40% o increased absorption from poor zinc status o decreased absorption ▪ phytates ▪ fiber ▪ high iron intake o sources = beans, legumes, nuts, - Zinc deficiency o Low intake o Low absorption rate o Increased needs ▪ Children and pregnancy o Symptoms ▪ Decreased growth, sexual maturity ▪ Decreased taste ▪ Night blindness (important with vitamin A) ▪ Slow healing ▪ Increased infections o RDA (don’t need to know) ▪ 11 – men ▪ 8 – women ▪ UL = 40mg o Toxicity ▪ 2-3X RDA = less absorption of other minerals ▪ 10X RDA = accelerated atherosclerosis • alters lipid profile • accelerates arteriosclerosis ▪ 1-2 gram dose • vomiting, diarrhea, headache o Sources of zinc ▪ High protein foods  meat, fish, poultry, legumes, whole grain, nuts ▪ Contamination from plumbing (pipes) Folic Acid - water soluble vitamin - coenzyme o DNA synthesis (especially for cells that are rapidly growing or rapidly turning over, red blood cells, intestinal cells) o Amino acid synthesis - RDA o Micrograms DFE o Synthetic vs natural ▪ Synthetic sources are better absorbed ▪ 70% better absorbed than natural o B6 also involved in DNA replication o can mask a vitamin B12 deficiency - sources = vegetables, fruits, grains (enriched), liver, legumes, asparagus, avocado, liver, muscle meats are not a good source - deficiency o increased needs, decreased intake, impaired absorption, decreased itake, drug induced o symptoms  macrocytic and hyperchromic anemia (huge with large nuclei, swollen), GI tract deterioration - folate and neural tube defects o first month of pregnancy  the embryo is forming ▪ brain and spinal chord are formed very early ▪ deficiency = poor formation of vertebrae • eg spina bifida • decreased intelligence • hydrocephalus  water on the brain • poor muscle development • paralysis of lower body • bowel and bladder incontinence • anacephaly  no brain ▪ require fortification of grains in 1998 NTR Exam 3 - Chapters 7.5 - 12 ******FEEL FREE TO ADD, DELETE, ORGANIZE INFORMATION FROM THE STUDY GUIDES Chapter 7.5 MINI LECTURE-bile availability about vitamins and minerals Chapter 8 – Study Questions 1. What is a coenzyme? a. Organic molecules (non-protein) that transfer atoms or chemical groups (like B vitamins in energy metabolism) 2. Describe the primary functions of the following nutrients: . Thiamin i.Energy metabolism (decarboxylation), DNA/RNA synthesis, and nerve function 1. Involved in neural synthesis of acetylcholine a. Riboflavin .Energy metabolism (accepts/transfers electrons and hydrogens) i.Involved in conversion from tryptophan to niacin b. Niacin .Energy metabolism and alcohol metabolism c. Biotin .Coenzymes function in carboxylation d. Pantothenic Acid .Coenzyme A functions in energy metabolism, cholesterol synthesis, and steroid hormone synthesis e. Vitamin B6 .PLP functions in amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism i.Involved in hemoglobin synthesis and antibody production f. Chromium .Functions by enhancing the activity of insulin by getting glucose to the cells 1. Insulin doesn’t work as well with high numbers of chromium 2. You can develop high blood glucose 3. There is no indication of toxicity g. Iodide (in T3 and T4) .Acts as part of the thyroid hormone in the neck i.The amount produced depends on the hormone made in the pituitary gland (body temperature, BMR, blood cell production, and nerve/muscle function) 3. What are the coenzyme names for the following nutrients? . Thiamin .Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) a. Riboflavin .Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) i.Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) b. Niacin .Nicotinamide dinucleotide i.(NAD, NADP) c. Pantothenic Acid .Coenzyme A (CoA) d. Vitamin B6 .Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) 4. List major food sources for the following nutrients: . Thiamin .Protein foods and grains a. Riboflavin .Dairy, protein foods, grains, and vegetables b. Niacin .Protein foods, vegetables, and grains c. Vitamin B6 .Protein foods, grains, vegetables, and fruits d. Chromium .Grains, vegetables, fruits, and protein foods e. Iodide .Grains, dairy, and protein foods 5. List the nutrients that are required for enriched processed grains. a. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid and iron 6. What amino acid can be converted to niacin in the body? How much of the amino acid has to be consumed to synthesize 1 mg. of niacin? Be able to calculate niacin equivalents. Tryptophan is converted to niacin 60 mg tryptophan = 1 mg niacin 7. Describe disease / symptoms associated with deficiency of the following nutrients: a. Thiamin i.Beriberi 1. Wet (cardiovascular / edema) 2. Dry (nerve / no edema) ii.Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (cerebral beriberi) b. Riboflavin .Ariboflavinosis (common with other deficiencies) 1. Stomatitis: inflammation of the lining of the mouth 2. Glossitis: inflamed tongue 3. Cheilosis: inflamed lips c. Niacin .Pellagra 1. Dermatitis: rash on sun-exposed skin 2. Diarrhea 3. Dementia: advanced pellagra 4. Death d. Vitamin B6 .More common in alcoholics i.Microcytic anemia: small cells ii.Hypochromic anemia: lack of color; affects hemoglobin synthesis iii.Stomatitis: inflammation of the lining of the mouth iv.Glossitis: inflamed tongue v.Cheilosis: inflamed lips e. Iodide .Inadequate intake i.Symptoms 1. Goiter: enlarged thyroid gland to capture more iodine 2. Weight gain 3. Sluggishness 4. Cretinism: if you’re pregnant and have low iodide, the baby could have cretinism (extremely low IQ [20]) 8. What populations are vulnerable to deficiency of the B vitamins? . The elderly, cancer patients, and alcoholics 9. Describe toxicity symptoms for the following nutrients: . Niacin .High levels come from pharmacological doses i.Decrease high blood cholesterol (treating hyperlipidemia) ii.Side effects: niacin flush 1. Capillaries dilate and you get flushed, ashes, gastric reflux, liver damage, and ulcers a. Vitamin B6 .A dose helps with PMS (2 - 6 grams is too much) i.A high duration is taking too much for 12 - 40 months ii.Symptoms: 1. Tingling fingers and loss of control of body movement b. Iodine .Increased intake: UL 1,100mcg/day i.Symptoms 1. Hyperthyroid / hypothyroid: too much thyroid hormone (can increase BMR) / not enough (can decrease BMR) 2. Goiter: enlarged thyroid gland to capture more iodine 10. Describe the differences between wet and dry beri beri? . Wet: cardiovascular/edema → dilated blood vessels, which leads to the kidneys retaining water and salt and heart failure a. Dry: nerve/no edema → wasting of muscle (emaciation) .Paralysis due to damaged peripheral nerves 11. What is the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome? . Cerebral Beriberi: you can’t walk and have irreversible brain damage .Seen in alcoholics and chemo patients 12. What is pellagra and what is its cause? What symptoms are manifested? Pellagra is a niacin deficiency Symptoms: Dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death • Skin highly sensitive to sunlight 13. Cheilosis, stomatitis, and glossitis are symptoms of what deficiency / deficiencies? a. Riboflavin and vitamin B6 14. What is anemia? What nutrient deficiency causes anemia? What kind of anemia is present? Anemia - low healthy red blood cell count B6 deficiency causes Anemia • Microcytic [small] , hypochromic [lack in color] anemia is present 15. Describe transamination and identify the vitamin that is intimately involved in transamination. Transamination - process of transferring the amine group from one amino acid to another in order to manufacture a new amino acid. B6 involved in transamination 16. What nutrient is involved in blood glucose regulation? Chromium 17. Deficiencies of which nutrients are rare or uncommon in this country? a. Pantothenic acid, biotin, and B6 18. What nutrient is involved regulating the rate at which we expend energy (kcals)? Iodide which is involved in energy metabolism 19. Fruits and vegetables are good sources of iodine. True False 20. Chromium supplements can increase weight loss and improve muscle bulking. True False 21. Which vitamin’s coenzymes transfer high-energy electrons and their associated hydrogen in the energy pathways? Riboflavin and Niacin 22. Which vitamin’s coenzyme help to liberate carbon dioxide in the TCA (Citric Acid) cycle? a. Thiamin 23. What vitamin is used as a drug to treat high LDL cholesterol? What is a common side effect from this drug? Niacin (for hyperlipididemia) Side effects: rash, headache, blurred vision 24. What is cretinism? a. A result of iodine deficiency b. Common in developing countries c. if you’re pregnant and
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