[HIS 315K] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 22 pages long Study Guide!

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UT-Austin
HIS 315K
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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European Discovery of Western Hemisphere:
Conquest and Colonization
Why? How? Who? So What?
European Explorations: 15th century
(1500 CE) Population growth following the bubonic plague.
Business, subsistence activity, and trade are encouraged.
A relative degree of prosperity is part of Europe.
Middle class (with a little bit of disposable income) is emerging and learning to
read.
With trade came exploration; people searching for easier ways to get to foreign
luxuries.
1500 is the high water mark for the Renaissance, or “rebirth”.
o Prior to Renaissance, lord of manor or priest told people what they needed
to know.
o Great enthusiasm for classical literature and art, and just learning about
the world and how it works.
Portuguese sailors sail around the tip of Africa to India, trading gold and ivory for
slaves.
o First European slave trade; not the first ever slave trade.
Spain: Exploration and Empire
Christian vs. Islam wars end.
1492 Ottoman Empire is defeated in Spain.
o Spain encouraged other European nations to invade holy lands.
Spanish Inquisition
o Isabella and Ferdinand Catholic kings of Europe; thought anyone who
wasn’t Catholic was going to hell. No heretics in Spain!
o Non-Christians (specifically Jews) were sought out and made to either
convert and conform, or die.
Vasco De Gama sails from Portugal to India
o Columbus is sent to find a shorter route to India.
Columbus sails to the Caribbean and thinks it’s India. Goes there and back four
times.
o Columbus brings gold back to Isabella and Ferdinand.
o Never finds a route to the East.
At this time, Spain has a superior naval fleet.
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Isabelle and Ferdinand sponsor many more trips to Central America, looking for
precious metals.
o Also went west to proselytize; sent priests and conquistadors back across
the ocean.
Priests and conquistadors land in Central America, near the Aztec empire.
o Led by Cortes.
o No more than 600 soldiers total, but displeased Aztecs were also
recruited.
o Spanish and other Europeans carried microbes that Central Americans did
not have resistance to.
o By the time they reach the capital, there is a smallpox epidemic.
o Conversion policy was a “convert or die” policy.
Pizarro goes to Peru.
o Pizarro kills emperor of the Incas and raids the nation.
o Soon ends up in the Philippines.
Looking for more gold, Spain sends Hernando de Soto to explore north of the
Aztec nation.
o Brings horses, pigs, and African slaves.
o Horses got loose, multiplied, and went to the Great Plains. Horse tribes of
the Great Plains emerge.
o In four years, he travels four different southern states, looking for
something as grand as Cuzco or Tenochtitlan.
o De Soto defeats natives but does not find any gold.
Spain sends de Vaca.
o Goes looking for cities of gold but doesn’t find them.
Coronado is sent and meets the Pueblo Indians.
o Runs Pueblo nation like a feudal system.
o Pueblo revolt and drive Spanish away.
o Spanish return and conquer them.
By 1690, Spain claims half of the Southern United states.
Other people in Europe hear about the Spanish success.
o However, everyone is afraid of Spain and their Navy.
France: “Poor Man’s Conquistadors of North”
French want in on the action, but do not want to be close to New Spain.
As early as 100AD, Vikings were the first Europeans to come to North America.
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