IRG 301 Study Guide - Final Guide: Contract, Advanced Capitalism, Socioeconomics

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IRG 320 Exam #2 review sheet
The exam will include five short answer questions and one essay question.
Be sure to define/describe/identify the key term. Strong short answers
demonstrate critical thinking by considering the implications and broader themes of
the issue and/or providing relevant examples that apply the concept. Strong essay
answers include a thesis statement, key claims to support your argument and use of
the literature. You do NOT need to cite authors or articles in your answers.
1. Functions of international organizations: centralization and independence
International organizations provide an independent and thus neutral entity
for nations to collaborate on global issues. Independence allows for IOs to
serve as an arbitrator for political and legal dispute as exemplified by the
European Court. IOs serves as an information provider free of national
biases such as Amnesty International. IOs allow for the centralization of
collective activities such as how the World Bank serves as a pool of
financial resources of capital and commitments.
oSupport for state interactions, managing substantive operations,
allows the ability to pool activities, norm elaboration and
oNeutrality from the state itself, act as a neutral information
provider, allocator, arbitrator
2. World Bank’s mission creep
The World Bank was originally established to focus on post-war
reconstruction and later included development efforts in poor countries.
New projects by the World Bank include economic management as part of
Middle East peacekeeping efforts and for loans to combat the AIDS
epidemic in Africa. The World Bank’s four sectors compete to accomplish
goals ranging from social development, like improving literacy rates, to
GDP growth. The World Bank’s mission has now become so complex and
it takes on challenges so far beyond its capabilities that it can no longer
achieve what it sets out to accomplish.
oDifficult to claim the bank is manageable. The Bank embraces an
unachievable vision instead of an operational mission because it is
under pressure from many different constituencies, need to
redefine its mission towards a more managerial role.
3. Strengths of the World Bank
The World Bank has three key strengths. 1) Sharing of information: The
World Bank can share valuable information that will assist with better
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governance, rule of law, economic freedom, environmental sustainability,
and social accountability. Such as Amnesty International which provides
unbiased information on human rights. 2) Develops long lasting markets,
institutions, and capacities: brought financial innovation to bare on plans
to develop medicines, protect wildlife, lower costs of humanitarian food
and supplies and create natural disaster insurance. 3) Offers diverse
financing: Through the IFC the Bank has extended financing to the private
sector and adapting to small and medium sized business such as cash-
transfers in Brazil. Overall the World Bank has been successful in
fostering growth, creating opportunity, and overcoming poverty.
Offers expertise, such as financial expertise to farmers and food buyers via
crop insurance, future markets, weather derivatives, recovery &
developing long-lasting markets, institutions, and capacities via diverse
funding options, economic stability via long-term investments, foundation
for recovery.
4. Reasons for state compliance with international agreements
Although treaty making is often not purely consensual, compliance
depends on some states being more powerful than others. The Montreal
Protocol is an example of this. Treaties that last are also adaptive to
economic, technological, social, and political changes. They do not remain
static. The treaty-making process also leaves room for accommodating
divergent interests.
Treaties are artifacts of political choice and social existence.
Treaties that last/are successful (have compliance) must be able to adapt to
inevitable changes in the economic, technological, social, and political
oMust contain self-adjusting mechanism
oLegally binding on states ratifying them
oCrucial that treaties don’t remain static
Efficiency, interests, and political norms
5. Reasons for state noncompliance with international agreements
States choose to be noncompliant when international agreements fall short
of making a durable framework or when goals are too ambitious or
ambiguous to accomplish. Ambiguity and indeterminacy allow for treaties
to be more flexible with the interpretations of the agreement, enhancing
the ruggedness of the framework. Limitations on the capacity of parties to
carry out their undertakings also contributes to noncompliance among
member states. An example of this is the lofty and rushed goals of the
Kyoto Protocol, which attempted to accomplish environmental tasks that
far outpaced the capabilities of the member states.
Ambiguity, variation in capability, time variations
oSignificant changes in social or economic systems mandated by
regulatory treaties take time to accomplish
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oAdaption to changing conditions
6. Effects of preferential trade agreements on human rights
HRAs are often seen as soft as they lack authority to enforce compliance.
For this reason, HRAs are not likely to reduce violations. PTAs on the
other hand are often seen as hard. PTAs use economic coercion to uphold
the agreements and this often makes them more effective in achieving
HRA’s (Human Rights Agreements) lack the engines of compliance that
drive many other areas of international law and supply no apparent
material incentives to conform.
PTA’s (Preferential Trade Agreements)
oRapidly growing class of international institutions that govern
market access between member states of an economic region
oFrequently regulate spheres of social governance that increasingly
include human rights standards.
When dealing with Human rights, hard laws are essential
oPTA’s implement hard standard’s via coercion
oWhereas HRA’s are not likely to, principally soft
7. Effects of regional organizations on democracy
Regional IOs are often used by young democracies to consolidate reform.
The EU for example makes membership contingent on following
democratic values and sets a standard that affiliating countries must meet.
They serve to protect democracy as they often provide mechanisms that
increase the cost of anti-regime behavior. Membership also gives
credibility to a young democracy.
Joining regional international organizations signals a commitment to
democracy, due to membership conditions, ability to monitor compliance,
and reward or punish countries for their results.
oMust have political will to set conditions on membership, enforce
the conditions necessary for democracy, and the means to enforce.
8. Escape clauses
Escape clauses ensure that more nations sign on because they are less
strict and less confining. Because of this, more nations are comfortable
with signing on and having leeway when there is an expected degree of
noncompliance. The cost of escaping has to be higher than the cost of
long-term non-compliance. The higher degree of uncertainty, the more
likely escape clauses are included.
Almost all major agreements have some form of escape, which allows for
countries to break conditions if circumstances change, or, allows for more
flexibility regarding compliance (allows for compliance standards to be
reviewed and altered if necessary)
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