MIS 301 Exam 2 study guide
Classes 10 & 11 – Open Source Software and SaaS
Doesn’t have to run on data center or application provider’s data center, moves
computing processes or resources from the user’s machine onto the Internet.
Computing service that charges you based only on the amount computing
resources you use.
The cloud can also maintain storage.
• Software as a service: run an application through web browser
o Development and maintenance is NOT your problem
• Virtualization: Packaging application bits with data bases, middle ware, and
LAMP (Linux Apache MySQL Perl/Python/PHP): acronym refers to first letters of the
components of the solution stack composed entirely of free and opensource software,
suitable for building highavailability heavyduty dynamic web sites, and capable of
serving tens of thousands of requests simultaneously.
LAMP software powers many sites, from Facebook to YouTube
Linux: operating system assembled under the model of free and open source
Apache: Apache is a web server, the most popular in use. (Apache HTTP server).
MySQL: An SQL database management system (DBMS)
Perl/Python/PHP: Relective programing languages originally designed for
producing dynamic web pages. PHP is used mainly in serverside application
Open source software (OSS): Software with its source code made available to others
and gives them the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for
any purpose. OSS is very often developed in a public, collaborative manner
• Allows any company to use a technology
o Helps drive penetration, growing the network of users
• Proprietary technologies allows the company to retain ownership and control, but
this my restrict the size of the network
• Firefox (Internet Explorer)
• OpenOffice (Microsoft Office) • Gimp (PhotoShop)
• Alfresco (Content MGmt)
• Marketcetera (Financial Trading)
• Zimbra (Email)
• MySQRL, ingres, and EnterpriseDB
• Sugar CRM (salfeforce.com)
• Asterix (Phone systems)
• Free BSD and Sun’s OpenSolaris
Why Open Source?
• Agility and time to market
*OSS diverts funds that firms would otherwise spend on fixed costs so that these
funds can be spent on innovation or other more competitive initiatives.
• Complexity of some produts
• Higher TCO for some products
• Concern about the ability of a product;s development community to provide
support or product improvement
• Legal and licensing concern
Software as a Service (SaaS): Software delivery model in which software and
associated data are centrally hosted on the cloud. Typically accessed by users through a
SaaS Business model:
• Manny SaaS firms earn money via a usagebased pricing model akin to a
• Other SaaS firms
o Offer free services supported by advertising
o Promote upgraded or premium versions for additional fees
“Freemium” pricing model
o Compete directly with biggest names in software
Benefits for SaaS Clients • Lower costs
• Financial risk mitigation
• Faster deployment times
• Variable operating expense
• Scalable systems
o Scalability allows a firm to scale from startup to blue chip without
having to significantly rewrite their code, potentially saving big on
software development costs.
• Higher quality and service level
• Remote access and availability
Total cost of ownership (TCO): all of the costs associated with the design, development,
testing, implementation, documentation, training and maintenance of a software system.
Components of TCO
• Requirements analysis and site prep
• Software purchases and license support
• Implementation and deployment costs
o Initial efficiency reduction
• Ongoing operational support
o Things break and change
• Strategic development costs
o Fitness landscape is always changing
TCO Over Time
Winners? (SaaS better at everything except “Software purchase and license support)
SaaS Not Without Risks
• Dependence on single vendor
• Longterm viability of partner firms
• Users may be forced to migrate, incurring unforeseen switching costs
• Might not have all features of desktop software
• Data assests stored offsite ▯potential security and legal concerns
• Reliance on a network connection ▯may be slower, less stable, and
Why Traditional Software?
• Unique business processes
• Perceived security threats
• Government constraints
What are some examples of open source software (OSS)?
What are the advantages of (OSS)? What are the disadvantages?
Why do some companies spend millions to develop software they give away for free?
What are potential business models for creators/vendors of SaaS? What are the benefits of USING SaaS? How can SaaS help companies create
competitive advantage if everyone has access to SaaS vendors?
What are the drawbacks of using SaaS? What risks does it create for companies who
want to move to the cloud?
Class 12: Databases
The accuracy and consistency of stored data, indicated by an absence of any alteration in
data between two updates of a data record. Data integrity is imposed within a database at
its design state through the use of standard rules and procedures, and is maintained
through the use of error checking and validation routines.
The appearance of the same data factor in more than one field or table of data, or
including a data factor as a separate entity when it can be easily inferred from
information in existing data fields. This repetition of the data can cause some distortions
and anomalies in the results.
The terms is also used to refer to the backing up or copying data on additional servers or
by other electronic means as a security measure.
Database: Store and manage large amounts of data.
o Library research tools
o Store inventory systems
Why Use a Database?
1. Preserve data integrity – assurance that data is consisten, correct, and
accessible 2. Eliminate data redundancy – unnecessary repetition of data that slows data
3. Limit data view (query, report) so that users only see what they need to
see, as cleanly and clearly as possible
1. Connecting activities across the value chain
A collection of forms, reports, queries, and application programs that process a
DB may have one or more applications, and each application may have one or more
Applications have different purposes, features, and functions, but they all process
the same inventory data stored in a common database
Database Management system (DBMS):
• Three functions
• DBMS and databases are DIFFERENT
o DBMS a licensed software program
o Database a collection of tables, relationships, and metadata
• Top 5 DBMS products
o Access – MS personal DBMS
o SQL Server – MS enterprise DBMS
o DB2 from IBM
o MySQL – free, opensource
A collection of fields
A window or screen that contains numerous fields, or spaces to enter data. Each field
holds a field label so that any user who views the form gets an idea of its contents. A form
is more user friendly than generating queries to create tables and insert data into fields.
Query: Request for a specific piece of information from a database. Many database management
systems use the Structured Query Language (SQL) standard query format.
presents information retrieved from a table or query in a preformatted, attractive manner.
Primary key: Colum or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a table
Student Number primary key of student table
• Data that describe data
o Format depends on database software
o Field properties describe formats
• Make databases much more useful
• No one needs to guess, remember, or record what is in database
• Make databases easy to use for authorized and unauthorized purposes
What are the three tactical reasons for using a database?
What is the strategic reason for using a database?
What is the relationship between a database, DBMS and a database application? Classes 13 & 15 History of the Internet and Data Communication
• Radio Connected World
• WWII Radar & Computers
o First computers evolved to code communications and to break the code
• Cold War Pushes Science
• 1960s Mainframe Computers
o “I think there is a world market for maybe face computers (Thomas
Watson, IBM chair 1943)
o 1960s – 6,000 computers in US
Mainframe computer: First computers. “I think there is a world market for maybe five
computers.” (Thomas Watson, IBM Chair, 1943
• Started at NASA
• Managed ARPA computer research
o Wanted to build network instead of one central control
Tired of changing seats and instructions
o Wrote RFP (Request for Proposals), “Cooperative Network of Time
IBM and AT$T declined to bid
o Frank Heart headed BBN team
• Did 20minute pitch that got $1M for IMP network
• Moved from ARPA to run Xerox Palo Alto Research Center
Frank Heart: Headed BBN team that decided to support Taylor’s proposal
Request for proposal (RFP): Bob Taylor wrote RFP for “Cooperative Network of Time
Sharing Computers.” Frank Heart and BBN submitted.
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA):
U.S. government agency created in 1958 (Created shortly after the launch of sputnik).
Originally created within the Department of Defense, the agency’s goal was to invest
in and fund projects that developed new technology. More specifically, the agency’s
primary aim was to enable the United States to lead the world in technological
Interface Messaging Processor (IMP): Separate computer that acts as a gateway to the
overall network for each node Analog signal:
• Circuit switching provides dedicated pointtopoint connection
• Full capacity available to both subscribers during call
• Callers pay whether they use circuit or note
• PSTN – Public Switched Telephone Network
• Packet switching breaks transmissions into messages (or packets, frames)
• When a packet arrives at a router, the router must decide which of several paths to
use to send the packet on
o Made at each router
• VoIP – uses packet switching as opposed to PSTN (circuit switching)
NOTE: The model is