NTR 306 Exam #4 Notes.docx

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NTR 306
Deanna Staskel

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NTR 306: EXAM 4 STUDY OBJECTIVES **For the vitamins & minerals discussed in class, know the form(s) that are active in the body; the main functions in the body; factors that inhibit or enhance absorption (if applicable); where they are stored in the body (if applicable); deficiency disease (if applicable) & major symptom(s); toxicity disease (if applicable) & major symptom(s); and most significant dietary sources. DRI & Supplements 1. Explain the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 ---—the dietary supplement manufacturer is responsible for ensuring that a dietary supplement is safe before it is marketed. —---FDA is responsible for taking action against any unsafe dietary supplement product after it reaches the market. —If enough reports of injury or death from a supplement, the FDA is responsible to prove it is unsafe before it can be removed from the market 2. Define DRI: Dietary Reference Intakes and the 3 parts of the DRI including the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), Adequate Intakes (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL). - DRI: Estimates apply to healthy people. Recommendations, NOT minimum levels nor optimal levels. Goals intended to be met through diet. -RDA: Average amount of nutrients needed by 98% of people. Set greater than EAR. -AI: Used when there is insufficient scientific evidence and official RDA has not been calculated. -UL: The maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects. 3. Explain how the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) is used to establish the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). -EAR: Average amount of nutrients that appears sufficient for 50% of the population. Closest to everyone’s needs. Chapter 10 – The Water-Soluble Vitamins: B Vitamins and Vitamin C 4. Define a vitamin and classify vitamins as water soluble or fat soluble. --- Vitamin: Any of a group of organic compounds that are essential for normal growth and nutrition and is required in small quantities in the diet. ---9 water-soluble: B vitamin complex & vitamin C ---4 fat-soluble: vitamins A, D, E, and K 5. List the B vitamins & identify the major functions (top 1 or 2) in the body. --Vitamin B1 (thiamin) ¤A vital part of thiamin pyrophosphate, a coenzyme that is very important for energy metabolism ¤Synthesis of DNA and RNA --Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) ¨Part of coenzyme flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in many reactions in energy metabolism ¨Serves many functions in maintenance of the integrity of the membranes of the skin, eyes, and GI tract ---Vitamin B3 (niacin) ¤Two coenzyme forms – metabolic reactions ¤Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) ¤Carries hydrogens and their electrons ¤NADP (the phosphate form) ¤In therapeutic doses ¤Lowers total cholesterol in the blood ¤Lowers triglycerides ¤Raises HDL cholesterol ---Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) ¤Part of coenzyme A used in energy metabolism ¤Acetyl CoA ¤Synthesis of ¤Cholesterol ¤Steroid hormones ¤Neurotransmitter acetylcholine ---Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) ¤Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP): coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids, glycogen, and some lipids ¤Interconversion of amino acids (AA) to carbohydrate or carbohydrate to nonessential AA ¤Removal of N from AA: “deamination” & "transamination" ¤Needed for heme synthesis & conversion of tryptophan to niacin ---Vitamin B7 (biotin) ¤Coenzyme critical in TCA cycle ¤Delivers carbon to pyruvate to form oxaloacetate ¤Participates in gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis ¤Participates in breakdown of fatty acids and amino acids ¤Maintenance of healthy hair, skin & nails ---Vitamin B9 (folic acid) ¤DNA synthesis, new cell synthesis ¤Prevention of birth defects ¤Neural tube: the embryo's precursor to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) ¤Spina bifida ¤Cofactor in amino acid metabolism ¤Conversion of homocysteine to methionine ¤Homocysteine: ¤High levels correlated with increased heart disease risk ---Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) ¤Coenzymes in energy metabolism ¤fatty acids & amino acids ¤Required for nucleic acid (DNA/RNA), red blood cell & other new cell synthesis ¤Health of nerve tissue ¤Activates folate ¤Homocysteine metabolism 6. List a major food groups that supply a good source for each of the B vitamins. ¨Vitamin B1 (thiamin) majority grains; pork ¨Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) grains milk products ¨Vitamin B3 (niacin) ¤Body manufacturers from tryptophan ¤Only occurs after protein synthesis needs have been met ¤protein rich foods ¨Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) ¤Widespread in a large variety foods chicken, beef, potato, oats, tomatoes, liver, yolk, whole grains, broccoli ¨Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) Meats, Fish, Poultry Legumes Non-starchy vegetables Non-citrus fruits ¨Vitamin B7 (biotin) ¤Peanuts ¤Eggs ¤Liver ¤Bacteria in the GI tract ¨Vitamin B9 (folic acid) ¤Dark green leafy vegetables, Beans ¤Fortified flour, grains, & cereals ¨Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) ¤Animal products 7. Identify the major deficiency disease associated with each B vitamin. ¨Vitamin B1 (thiamin) ¤Beriberi ¤Symptoms include loss of appetite, weight loss, confusion, muscle weakness, peripheral neuropathy ¤Classifications Wet – edema and congestive heart failure Dry – muscle wasting without edema or nerve degeneration ¨Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome ¤Caused by chronic alcohol abuse ¤Progressively damaging brain disorder ¨Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) Ariboflavinosis – cells in tissues lining the throat, mouth, tongue and lips becomes inflamed or swollen ¤Sore throat ¤Stomatitis ¨Vitamin B3 (niacin) ¨Pellagra (disease of the three Ds) ¤Dermatitis ¤Diarrhea ¤Dementia ¤Reddish coloring of the face, arms, and chest ¤Nausea, vomiting, heartburn ¤Raised blood glucose levels ¨Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) digestive and neurological disturbances ¨Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) ¤Scaly dermatitis ¤Microcytic, hypochromatic anemia – small cell type ¤CNS: Depression, confusion, and convulsions ¨Vitamin B7 (biotin) ¤Rare genetic disorder ¨Symptoms include hair loss, depression, nausea, dermatitis, lethargy, hallucinations ¨Vitamin B9 (folic acid) ¤Megaloblastic Macrocytic anemia ¤Fewer, larger, immature red blood cells ¨Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) ¨Deficiency ¤Megaloblastic Macrocytic anemia ¤“pernicious anemia” ¤Nerve damage ¤tingling and numbness in hands & feet 8. Describe the activation of folate by vitamin B12. Vitamin B ’12and folate’s roles intertwine because each depends on the other for activation. Folate is part of a coenzyme that helps convert vitamin B to one of its coenzyme forms and helps synthesize DNA; vitamin B 12 12 removes a methyl group to activate the folate coenzyme. 9. List the major uses of vitamin C in the body. ---Major functions ¤Collagen formation ¤Antioxidant ¤Iron absorption ¤Immune system ¤Synthesis of carnitine ¤essential for the transport of fat to mitochondria, for conversion to energy ¤can protect from damage by free radicals and reactive oxygen species 10. Identify the signs and symptoms of vitamin C deficiency and toxicity. ¤Consuming too much can cause nausea, stomach cramps, and diarrhea Deficiency: scorbutic gums: unlike other lesions of the mouth, scurvy presents a symmetrical appearance without infection pinpoint hemorrhages: small red spots appear in the skin, indicating spontaneous internal bleeding 11. Identify major food sources of vitamin C. ¤Plant sources fruits/veggies: red bell pepper and strawberries have the highest amount. Chapter 11 – The Fat-Soluble Vitamins: A, D, E, and K 1. Identify the roles of vitamin A (retinal, retinol, & retinoic acid). -Retinol: Reproduction -Retinal: Vision -Retinoic Acid: Growth/Development -Vitamin A also works in keeping a healthy immune system 2. List food sources of vitamin A and beta-carotene. -Beta-carotene: Plants (like carrots!) -Retinyl Esters: Animals 3. Describe how beta-carotene differs from preformed Vitamin A in storage, function, & toxicity potential. Beta carotene is stored in plant foods. Can act as an antioxidant. Not converted efficiently enough in the body to cause vitamin A toxicity; instead it is stored in the fat just under the skin. 4. Describe the uses of vitamin D in the body and the effects of deficiency and toxicity. “Sunshine Vitamin” ØRickets: vitamin D deficiency disease in children —Bones aren’t adequately mineralized with calcium and phosphorus causing them to weaken, leading to bowed legs —Osteomalacia: adult equivalent of rickets —may lead to osteoporosis —Muscle weakness and pain also potential symptoms of deficiency 5. Identify major sources of vitamin D. ---grains ---oils ---milk ---meats and beans ---e.g. salmon, fortified milk, egg yolk, fortified cereals, 6. Identify the starting material for Vitamin D production in the body and the organs involved in its activation. —Exposure to sunlight (UV rays) —Cholesterol-containing compound in skin is converted to inactive form of vitamin D —Inactive form converted to circulating form in liver, to active form in kidneys 7. Identify the role of vitamin E in the body
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